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备考高考英语文化教育类阅读理解题的技巧

【题型说明】文化教育类阅读理解文章属高考常选材料之一。这类文章常涉及文化、教育、法制、宗教等方面的文学艺术、发明创造、文化遗产保护、宗教与文化、风俗与习惯、道德与法制、中外文学名著节选、各国学校教育、家庭教育等等。这类材料的命题点往往落在主旨大意题、事实细节题上。

【答题方法】在做这类阅读理解题时,我们应注意以下几个方面:

1. 采用先题后文:先读题目,再带着问题读文章。这类阅读理解文章相对来说事实细节题稍多一点,如果带着问题读文章,有利于我们抓细节。

2. 先做细节题。因为做完了局部性的事实细节题后,自然会加深我们对文章的理解,这样更有利于做主旨大意题。

3. 重点敲定主旨题。主旨大意题提问的形式主要有两大类:一类是Main idea型;一类是TopicTitle型。在解答这类试题时应注意以下几点:

a.读首句抓大意。文化教育类阅读理解文章多采用说明文、议论文体裁,而这类文章大都采用文章段落的中心,即主题句在文章开头。因此,要寻找这类文章的主旨大意就需要研究文章的首句。

b.读尾句抓大意。有时这类文章的主题句安排在文章的结尾,作为对全篇的总结。

c.读首段抓大意。有些文章或段落的开头和结尾部分都有主题句。这种结构是为了突出主题思想而使用两次点题的写作方法。这两个主题句在句子结构和用词上有所不同,而且在内容上前句和后句也不重复。

d.从段落中抓大意。有些文章或段落的主题句在文章中,这种文章或段落往往以一句话或几句话引出要表达的主题,在主题句出现后,再举例子陈述细节或继续论证。

d.归纳要点抓大意。有些文章或段落无明显的主题句,只是暗示性地体现主题。这就要求同学们在阅读过程中根据文中所叙述的事实或线索来概括总结主旨大意。

【实例分析】阅读下面的文章,然后做后面的阅读理解题:

The idea of rain making is almost as old as man, but it was not until 1946 that man succeeded in making rain. In ancient(古代的) times, rainmakers claimed(声称) to be able to bring rain by many methods: dancing, singing, killing various kinds of living creatures(including humans), and blowing a stream of water into the air from a kind of pipe.

More recently, some rainmakers claimed to make rain by shooting guns, causing explosions, or burning chemicals, the smoke of which was supposed to cause rain to fall. These rainmakers asked for as much as 1,000 dollars to make an inch of rain. One was so effective that he was almost hanged. He was believed to have caused a twenty-inch rain in southern California that flooded that land, killed several people, and did millions of dollars’ worth of damage. Before 1946, rainmakers were either liars or honest people who happened to have good luck. Scientific rain making was started in that year by Vincent J. Schaefer, a scientist at the laboratories of the General Electric Company in New York State. His success was the result of a lucky accident that changed years of failure into victory.

1. One rainmaker was almost hanged because ______.

A. he did not make rain at all

B. he asked for too much money

C. people thought he caused too much rain

D. he killed several people

2. The underlined word liars means _______.

A. people who tell lies.

B. tools used to make rain.

C. persons who make rain.

D. people who have good luck.

3. Which of the following methods can make rain?

A. Killing pigs and sheep.

B. Blowing a stream of water into the air from a kind of pipe.

C. Shooting guns or causing explosions.

D. None of the above is right.

4. Who was the first rainmaker succeeding in making rain?

A. The one who caused a twenty-inch rain in southern California.

B. Before 1946, a rainmaker who happened to have good luck.

C. Vincent J. Schaefer, in 1946.

D. The passage doesn’t tell us his or her name.

【答案与解析】本文讲述的是人工降雨的历史。

1. C推理判断题。根据第2段第 3 One was so effective that he was almost hanged. He was believed to have caused a twenty-inch rain in southern California that flooded that land, killed several people, and did millions of dollars’ worth of damage可知有人相信他引来的降雨淹没了南加利福尼亚,淹死了几个人并造成了巨大损失。由此可推断他几乎被绞死的原因是人们认为他引来的雨水太多。故答案为C

2. A推理判断题。推断词义。根据第2段倒数第 3 Before 1946, rainmakers were either liars or honest people who happened to have good luck其中的either…or表示选择,因此可知唤雨的人或者是诚实的人或者是不诚实的人,即撒谎的人。故答案为A

3. D推断题根据第1段第 2 In ancient(古代的) times, rainmakers claimed(声称) to be able to bring rain by many methods: dancing, singing, killing various kinds of living creatures(including humans), and blowing a stream of water into the air from a kind of pipe和第2段第 1 More recently, some rainmakers claimed to make rain by shooting guns, causing explosions, or burning chemicals, the smoke of which was supposed to cause rain to fall可知ABC都是古代唤雨巫师的声称。再根据第1段第 1 句中but it was not until 1946 that man succeeded in making rain和第2段倒数第 2 句中Scientific rain making was started in that year by Vincent J. Schaefer可知1946年科学的人工降雨开始。故答案为D

4. C事实细节题。根据第2段倒数第 3 Before 1946, rainmakers were either liars or honest people who happened to have good luck. Scientific rain making was started in that year by Vincent J. Schaefer可知答案为C

先题后文,我们老师原来也是这么告诉我们的。
1

评分人数

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回复 2# tingroom


   

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回复 3# 沙漠之舟


    希望对你有用!

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回复 1# 小尾巴猪


    我们老师也是这样说的,先看题目,后文!

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第2.3点很有用

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不错啊! 一个字牛啊!

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回复 1# 小尾巴猪


    我觉得很对   注意开头一句    结尾一句  文章的关键

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