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[4-18 英语话题评论]自恋分三种 你是哪种呢?

It's more than likely you know someone who's obsessed with their own image.

        你的交际圈中定然有痴迷于自己形象的人吧。

        A quick scroll through social media can reveal the narcissists in a constant stream of selfies; you might even be one.

        打开社交媒体,轻轻滑动手指,滚滚的自拍照会向你涌来。甚至你本人很可能也是这众多自恋者中的一员。

        Narcissists think they're better, smarter, and more important than the people around them – and they want to be treated as such, experts say.

        有关专家说,自恋者通常认为自己比周围人更聪明、更优秀、更重要——他们也希望别人能这样看待他们。

        A new TEDEd video breaks down the different types of narcissism, from the obvious to the not-so obvious, and explains how these traits almost always take a turn for the dark side.

        TED教育频道一个最新的视频讲到,自恋者可被划分为几种不同类型,有些人的自恋程度较明显,有些则不太明显。该视频还解释了这种性格特征为什么常常会产生负面效果。

        Psychologists define narcissism as an 'inflated, grandiose self-image,' and it has persevered through the centuries as a personality trait and, in extreme cases, a psychological disorder.

        心理学家将自恋定义为:“夸张、不切实际的自我形象”。几个世纪以来,人们一直将它看做一种性格特征,在某些极端情况下,它被看成一种心理障碍。

        Narcissists have a tendency to act selfishly, according to the lesson by W. Keith Campbell, and this can present itself in many different ways.

        基思•坎贝尔在其讲演中指出,自恋者一般都有点自私,并且这种特点会通过许多不同的方式显现出来。

        According to the expert, 'it's like a disease where the sufferers feel pretty good, but the people around them suffer.'

        坎贝尔说,“自恋就像疾病一样,自恋者自我感觉不错,但周围人却因此遭殃。”

        Political leaders or people of power may make risky or unethical decisions as a result of narcissism, while narcissistic partners could be unfaithful and dishonest.

        由于自恋,政治领导者或是有权势的人可能会做一些冒险的或不道德的决定。自恋型的伴侣也可能不忠,易出轨。

        As a personality trait, narcissism can appear in two forms: grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism.

        作为一种性格特点,自恋可以分为两种形式:浮夸型自恋和脆弱型自恋。

        In both forms, however, 'the dark side of narcissism' will ultimately show up over time.

        然而,自恋的这两种形式,最终都会随着时间的推移,展现出“自恋的黑暗面”。

        A much more extreme type of narcissism also exists, and it's classified as a psychological disorder.

        还有一种更为极端的自恋类型,它被看成是一种心理障碍。

        This is known as narcissistic personality disorder.

        即我们通常所说的自恋型人格障碍。

        Research has linked narcissism to genetics, but it's still unknown which genes actually contribute to this.

        已经有研究认为自恋与基因有关,但仍无法得知哪种基因更易导致自恋。

        Genes, environment, and cultural setting can all have a hand in fostering narcissism.

        基因、环境、文化背景都可能影响自恋的形成。

        According to the expert, narcissism has been on the rise in the United States since the 1970s.

        专家谈到,自20世纪70年代以来,美国的自恋人数一直处于上升态势。

        And, while social media hasn't been proven to actually create narcissists, it does give them a new platform to garner attention and admiration.

        尽管没有证据表明社交媒体为自恋者提供了滋生的土壤,但它确实为自恋者创造了一个赢得别人注意和赞赏的平台。

        When a narcissist's self-inflated viewpoint is challenged, a person can become aggressive and resentful.

        当自恋者自我膨胀的观点受到他人质疑时,他可能就会变得咄咄逼人、愤恨不满。

        It is possible for narcissists to become more altruistic, the video explains, and this can be done by enrolling in psychotherapy, or practicing compassion.

        视频解释道,自恋者也有可能变得更无私,但这可能要通过心理治疗或培养同情心的方式得以实现。

        People who exhibit narcissistic traits can improve their behaviour by reflecting upon their own actions or practicing compassion for others.

        自恋者通过反思自身行为或培养对他人的同情心,可以改进自己的行为举止。

        But, becoming less self-absorbed isn't always an easy task, the expert explains.

        然而专家称,要想降低自己的自恋情结绝非易事。

        'For narcissists, self-reflection is hard from an unflattering angle.'

        “对自恋者而言,改变浮夸的想法进行自我反思是有难度的。”

        WHAT KIND OF NARCISSIST ARE YOU?

        看看你是哪种自恋类型

        1. Grandiose narcissists are the most familiar type, the video explains, and these people can be extroverted, dominant, and attention-seeking.

        视频讲到,浮夸型自恋者最为常见。这些人性格外向、控制欲强,希望引起别人注意。

        These types of narcissists will 'pursue attention and power,' often showing up among political and cultural leaders, and celebrities.

        这种自恋者在政治首脑、文化领袖等名人中最为常见,他们“向往别人的注意、追逐权力”。

        This way of viewing oneself can be nurtured by upbringing, especially in situations where parent's put their child on a pedestal.

        如果父母将孩子视为掌上明珠,在这种成长环境下,就容易培养出这类自恋性格。

        2. Vulnerable narcissists are more reserved. People with this trait have a strong sense of entitlement, and easily feel threatened or demeaned by the actions of others.

        脆弱型自恋者可能更为矜持一些。他们的权利意识更强,别人的一个无意之举,可能就会让他们感到自己被威胁或轻视了。

        Cold, controlling parents can have a hand in fostering this trait, the video explains.

        视频中说,冷漠、控制欲强的父母更有可能培养出有这种性格特点的孩子。

        3. Narcissistic personality disorder is a much more extreme form, and is classified as a psychological disorder.

        自恋型人格障碍是一种更为极端的自恋类型,它被认为是一种心理疾病。

        This is more common in men, and affects just 1-2 percent of the population.

        这种自恋类型在男性中更为常见,仅占男性总人口的1%到2%。

        These people also feel a sense of entitlement, and seek admiration and attention, but in a way that is all-encompassing, the experts explain.

        专家称,这类人也有一种权利意识,希望得到别人的注意和赞赏,涵盖方方面面。

        A narcissistic personality disorder can consume a person's life.

        自恋型人格障碍可能会影响一个人的一生。

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