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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(一)

With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation's news coverage, as well as listen to it.
  
  And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio station. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children's programmes and films for an annual licence fee of £83 per household.
  
  It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years - yet the BBC's future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organisation, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.
  
  The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC - including ordinary listeners and viewers - to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC's royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organisation as it is, or to make changes.
  
  Defenders of the Corporation - of whom there are many - are fond of quoting the American slogan. If it ain't broke, don't fix it. The BBC ain't broke, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word broke, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?
  
  Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels - ITV and Channel 4 - were required by the Thatcher Government's Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels - funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers' subscriptions - which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.
  
  55. The world famous BBC now faces ________.  (A) the problem of new coverage  (B) an uncertain prospect
  (C) inquiries by the general public  (D) shrinkage of audience
  
  56. In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?
  
  (A) Extension of its TV service to Far East.
  (B) Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.
  (C) Potentials for further international co-operations.
  (D) Its existence as a broadcasting organisation.
  
  57. The BBC's royal charter (line 4, paragraph 4) stands for ________.
  (A) the financial support from the royal family
  (B) the privileges granted by the Queen
  (C) a contract with the Queen
  (D) a unique relationship with the royal family
  
  58. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than ________.        
  (A) the emergence of commercial TV channels
  (B) the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government
  (C) the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs
  (D) the challenge of new satellite channels
  
  答案及试题解析
  试题解析:
  
  55. (B)
  意为:前景不定。
  
  第三段指出,英国广播公司(BBC)已有70多年的光辉历程,然而,目前其前景不明(in doubt)。虽然(至少就目前而言)作为一个公办广播机构,广播公司将继续存在下去,但是,其作用、规模、节目成为目前英国举国上下争论的话题。第四段指出,这场争论是由政府发起的。政府要求普通听众和观众评论广播公司的优缺点-甚至于值不值得把它办下去(was worth keeping)。最后一段指出,广播公司也的确面临着新的挑战,它只有改变自己才能适应新的形势。
  
  A意为:新闻报道(的范围)问题。
  
  C意为:公众的质询。公众并未主动对广播公司的发展前景及状况评头论足,而是政府要求他们这样做的。
  
  D意为:观(听)众的减少。
  
  56. (C)
  意为:进一步进行国际合作的潜力。
  
  最后一段指出,由于广播领域(broadcasting world)正在发生变化,英国广播公司也应改变自己,以适应新形势。撤切尔政府制定的广播法要求电视频道进一步商业化、搞广告竞争并削减开支与劳务。新电视频道的开播将带来长远的巨变。可见,这里并未提到国际合作问题。
  
  A意为:将电视广播扩展到远东地区。第一段指出,随着英国广播公司国际电视节目的开播,数百万亚洲和美洲人不仅可以听到它的广播,还可以观看到它的电视新闻报道(news coverage)。文章最后一段还提到了卫星频道将会给广播公司带来最大的变化。
  
  B意为:电视节目成为举国上下谈论的话题。
  
  D意为:它作为广播机构的存在。
  
  另请参阅第55题题解。
  
  57. (C) 可直译为:与女王签的契约。
  
  众所周知,英国是君主立宪国家,国王代表国家。因此,与女王签约就等于说该公司是国家办的广播公司(a publicly-funded broadcasting station),而不是私营的。charter意为:契约,特许证。原句可译为:质询的原因是:广播公司的皇家契约1996年将要到期,因此必须决定广播公司是保持原样还是要改革。
  
  A意为:皇族的财政支持。皇族指国王的家庭,与国家是两码事。
  
  B意为:女王准予的一系列特权。
  
  D意为:与皇族的特殊关系。
  
  58. (D)
  意为:新电视频道的挑战。
  
  该题提问部分意为:英国广播公司不得不自行调整的最主要原因恰恰是……。文章最后一句指出:从长远的观点来看,新电视频道的开播将无疑会带来最大的变化(注意:本句是强调句)。另请参阅第56题题解。
  
  A意为:商业性电视频道的出现。
  
  B意为:政府广播法的实施。
  
  C意为:降低成本和劳务的紧迫性。
  
  (A)、(B)、(C)虽然都提到了,但都不是作为主要原因而提的。
  
  翻译句子
  1、The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC-including ordinary listeners and viewers-to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping.
  
  [参考译文] 这场争论是由政府发起的,政府请任何一个对英国广播公司有意见的人-包括普通的听众和观众-来说说这个好在哪里或坏在哪里,甚至要说说他们是否认为这个公司值得被保留下来。
  
  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主干结构是 The debate was launched by the Government,使用了被动语态。后面 which 引导定语从句 which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC…修饰 government,定语从句中不定式 to say 后面是两个并列的宾语从句,一个由 what 引导,一个由 whether 引导,两部分用 and 连接,副词 even 表示进一步强调。另外两个破折号之间的部分属于插入成分,是用来进一步定义 anyone 的。anyone 后面的 with 介词词组也是用来修饰 anyone 的。
  
  [阅读重点] 重点是要弄清楚后面定语从句,两个宾语从句,还有插入成分之间的层次关系。另外要注意 be worth doing 的用法,这一结构本身就可以表达被动含义,因而 the Corporation was worth keeping 就是英国广播公司值得被保留的意思。
  
  2、But it is the arrival of new satellite channels-funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers' subscriptions-which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.
  
  [参考译文] 但是新的卫星频道的到来—它的资金一部分来自于广告,一部分来自于观众的收视费—将从长远意义上导致最巨大的变化。
  
  [结构剖析] 首先这个句子使用了强调结构 it is…which,which 指代前面的 channels。破折号中间部分的插入成分相当于定语,(which are) funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers' subscriptions 修饰 channels,其中 and 连接两个 partly by。
  [阅读重点] 注意 bring about 在句中的含义是引起、导致、产生。
  
  难句解析
  
  1、They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children's programmes and films for an annual licence fee of £83 per household.
  [参考译文] 每户每年支付83英镑的的收视费用就可以收看体育运动、喜剧、戏剧、音乐、新闻与时事、教育、宗教、关于议会的报道、儿童节目和电影。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 They are brought…for an annual license fee…,其中谓语部分使用了被动语态。实际结构是 bring 后接双宾语 bring sb. sth.,在这句话中,直接宾语很长,是一系列名词的罗列,前面的名词用逗号连接,最后两个并列成分用 and 连接。
  
  [阅读重点] 重点要注意 they 指代前面提到的 listeners and viewers,这里使用了 bring sb. sth. 这一结构的被动式 sb. was brought sth.。介词 for 在这里相当于 at the price of。另外 news and current affairs 中的 and 是连接 news 和 current affairs 的,而这个词组作为一个整体与其它的名词 music、education 等并列。
  
  2、The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.
  [参考译文] 英国广播公司将作为一个公共基金支持的广播组织存在下来,至少目前会这样,但是它的角色、它的规模和它的节目现在在英国成了全国上下的讨论话题。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的结构是 but 连接了两个转折关系的句子。其中 at least for the time being 前后用逗号与句子其它部分分开,是插入语。前一句子的主干结构是 The Corporation will survive as…,后一句子的主干结构是 its role, its size and its programs are now the subject…。
  
  [阅读重点] The Corporation 指代前面提到的 BBC=British Broadcast Corporation。另外注意 as 的用法,这里它用作介词,是作为……的意思。publicly-funded 由公众提供资金的;nation-wide 全国范围内的。
  
  3、The BBC ain't broke, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word broke, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?
  
  [参考译文] 他们说英国广播公司没有破产(broke),他们的意思是说它没有垮掉 (broken 和单词 broke 是有区别的,broke 的意思是没有钱),那为什么要自找麻烦去改变它呢?
  
  [结构剖析] 这句话是 so 连接的两个因果关系的句子。they say 是插入语。which 引导定语从句修饰前面引号中的部分 ain't broke。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 which 指代的是前面引号中的部分;而且注意区别 broke 和 broken 在这里的不同意思。why do sth. 这里是个反问句,是不太正式的用法。注意在此处,作者修正了前面美国俚语 ain't broke 中 broke 一词的用法错误,指出其应该被写为 broken。
  语言点详解
  
  1. coverage 新闻报道
  [扩充词汇] coverage n.覆盖,总括;新闻报道
  [经典例句] He wrote a very excellent coverag on the European situation.
  
  2. tune in to 收听
  [大纲词汇] tune n.调子,曲调;和谐,协调;v.调音,调节,调整 tune in (to sth.) 调谐,收听
  [经典例句] She usually tunes in to the news on CNN.
  
  3. dozens of 很多
  [大纲词汇] dozen n.十二个
  [经典例句] I have dozens of things to do.
  
  4. comedy 喜剧
  [大纲词汇] comedy n.喜剧,喜剧性事件
  [相关词汇] tragedy .悲剧,悲剧性事件
  
  5. affair 形势
  [大纲词汇] affair n.事,事情,事件
  [扩充词汇] affairs n.事务
  [经典例句] China will never seek hegemony in the international affairs.
  
  6. parliamentary 议会的
  [大纲词汇] parliament n. 国会,议会
  [衍生词汇] parliamentary a. 国会的,议会的
  [经典例句] The new parliamentary building is designed by a famous architect.
  
  7. annual 每年的
  [大纲词汇] annual a. 每年的,年度的;n. 年刊,年鉴
  [经典例句] The financial department submitted the annual report to the board.
  
  8. household 家庭
  [大纲词汇] household n.户,家庭,全家人
  [经典例句] How many people are there in your household?   
  9. remarkable 值得注意的
  [大纲词汇] remarkable a.值得注意的;显著的,异常的,非凡的
  [经典例句] He has made remarkable progress in his study.
  
  10. stretch back 回溯到
  [大纲词汇] stretch v. 拉长,伸,延; n. 一段时间,一段路程;拉长,延伸
  [经典例句] Their conflict stretched back over 20 years.
  
  11. in doubt 悬而未决
  [大纲词汇] doubt n./v.怀疑,疑虑 no doubt 无疑,必定
  [扩充词汇] in doubt 有疑问,悬而未决
  [经典例句] Whether they will adopt the design is still in doubt.
  
  12. broadcasting 广播
  [大纲词汇] broadcast v./n. 广播(节目)
  
  [衍生词汇] broadcasting n.广播,播音
  [经典例句] She works for a famous broadcasting company.
  
  13. for the time being 目前
  [扩充词汇] for the time being 目前
  [经典例句] His nephew is living with me for the time being.
  
  14. subject of … 的对象
  [大纲词汇] subject n.主题,题目;学科,科目;主语 a. (to)易遭…的,受…支配的v. (to)使遭受,使服从
  [经典例句] The minister of defense became the subject of criticism.
  
  15. nation-wide 全国的
  [构词方法] -wide 与名次一起构成形容词,表示全…范围的
  
  [联想记忆] world-wide 全世界的
  
  16. debate 辩论
  [大纲词汇] debate v./n.争论,辩论
  [经典例句] A debate on farm price support took place in the Senate yesterday.
  
  17. launch 开展
  [大纲词汇] launch v.发射;使(船)下水;发动;开展;n.发射;下水
  [经典例句] The environmentalists launched a campaign against pollution.
  
  18. royal charter 皇家特许证
  [大纲词汇] charter v.租车,租船;n.宪章
  [扩充词汇]charter n.特许
  
  19. run out 到期,用完
  [大纲词汇] run out of 用完,用尽,耗尽
  [经典例句] We are running out of paper./ The paper is running out.
  
  20. keep … as it is 按原样保留…
  
  [经典例句] The expert suggest we keep the ancient house as it is.
  
  21. be fond of 喜爱
  [大纲词汇] fond a.(of)喜爱的,爱好的
  [经典例句] My niece is very fond of sweets.
  
  22. quote 引用
  [大纲词汇] quote v. 引用,援引
  [衍生词汇] quotation n.引文,引用
  [经典例句] The judge quoted various cases in support of his opinion.
  
  23. broke 破产的
  [大纲词汇] broken a.破碎(了)的
  [扩充词汇] broke a. 不名一文的,破产的注意:不要混淆两词的含义和用法
  
  24. distinct from 与…截然不同的
  [大纲词汇] distinct a.清楚的,明显的;(from)截然不同的 distinction n.差别,区分
  [经典例句] His hobbies are distinct from his work.
  
  25. subscription 付款收看
  [大纲词汇] subscribe v.订阅,订购
  [衍生词汇] subscription n.订阅,订购
  [经典例句] I entered a subscription to Time for one year.
  
  26. in the long term 从长远来看
  [扩充词汇] in the long term 从长远来看
  [经典例句] The policy will benefit the growth of economy in the long term.
  
  27. prospect 前景
  [大纲词汇] prospect n.景色;前景,前途;展望
  [经典例句] We wish his a bright prospect in the future.
  
  28. shrinkage 减少
  [大纲词汇] shrink v. 起皱,收缩;退缩;畏缩
  [衍生词汇] shrinkage n.收缩,缩水;减少,低落
  [构词方法] -age后缀,表示动作,过程
  
  [联想记忆] marriage n.婚姻 breakage n.破损
  
  29. stand for 表示
  [大纲词汇] stand for 代替,代表,意味着
  [经典例句] BBC stand for British Broadcasting Company.
  
  30. privilege 特权
  [大纲词汇] privilege n.特权,优惠,特许;v. 给予优惠,给予特权
  [经典例句] Education is a privilege in countries where there are still not many schools.
  
  31. granted by 给予
  [大纲词汇] grant v.同意,准予;给予,授予;n.授予物
  [经典例句] He was finally granted an entry visa by the British Embassy.
  
  32. foremost 首要的
  [扩充词汇] foremost a. 最前的,最先的;首要的,杰出的
  [经典例句] He is considered the foremost artist in his country.
  
  33. readjust 重新调整
  [大纲词汇] adjust v.调整,调节;校正
  [衍生词汇] readjust v.重新调整,使重新适应
  [构词方法] re-前缀,表示又,再,重新
  
  [联想记忆] reappear v.再现 remarry v.再婚
  [经典例句] The government readjust its policy on import and export.
  
  34. no other than 正是
  [大纲词汇] other than 不同于
  [扩充词汇] no other than 正是
  [经典例句] Taking his money away is no other than killing him.
  
  35. emergence 出现
  [大纲词汇] emerge v.浮现,出现
  [衍生词汇] emergence n.出现,浮现;露头
  [词汇比较] emergency n.紧急情况,突发事件,非常时刻注意;两词虽只有一个字母之差,但意思截然不同,注意区分
  [经典例句] The past ten years witnessed the emergence of many new enterprises.
  
  36. enforcement 实施
  [大纲词汇] enforce v.实行,执行;强制
  [衍生词汇] enforcement n.实施,强制执行 enforceable a.可执行的
  [经典例句] Many people are against the enforcement of the new Tax Law.

考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(二)

In the last half of the nineteenth century capital and labor were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.
  
  The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world's movement towards industrialization. Towns like Bournemouth and East Bourne sprang up to house large comfortable classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand Shareholding meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.
  
  The shareholders as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organisation of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other's strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.
  
  59. It's true of the old family firms that ________.
  
  (A)they were spoiled by the younger generations
  
  (B)they failed for lack of individual initiative
  
  (C)they lacked efficiency compared with modern companies
  
  (D)they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers
  
  60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in ________.
  
  (A)the separation of capital from management
  
  (B)the ownership of capital by managers
  
  (C)the emergence of capital and labour as two classes
  
  (D)the participation of shareholders in municipal business
  
  61. According to the passage, all of the following are true except that ________.
  
  (A)the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers
  
  (B)the old firm owners had a better understanding of their workers
  
  (C)the limited liability companies were too large to run smoothly
  
  (D)the trade unions seemed to play a positive role
  
  62. The author is most critical of ________.
  
  (A)family firm owners  (B)landowners
  
  (C)managers      (D)shareholders
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  试题解析:
  
  59.(C)本题提问部分意为:事实上,老家族公司……。选择项(C)意为:与现代公司相比,它们缺乏效率。
  
  第一段第二、三句指出,许多老公司被拥有各级拿薪水的经理的有限(责任)公司所取代。这一变化通过一大批专业人员的使用适应了新时代技术的要求、防止了效率的下降。而效率的下降使许多家族公司破产,因为第二、三代继承人已不像公司的创立者那样精力充沛。
  
  A意为:它们被后代毁了。(A)不对主要有两个原因,其一,原文指出:是效率的下降毁了家庭公司,而效率的下降可能是主观原因造成的,也可能是客观原因造成的;其二,根据原文,效率的下降通常(so commonly)在第二、三代毁了家庭公司,so commonly一词的使用说明还有没破产的家庭公司。
  
  B意为:它们因缺乏个人的独创精神而破产。从以上的分析可见,破产的原因是缺乏效率。
  
  D意为:它们能为纳税人提供足够的服务项目。
  
  60.(A)意为:资本与管理的分离,第二段指出,有限公司及市营买卖的发展引起了重大变化。对资本与企业的如此大规模的非个人操纵大大地增加了作为一个阶级的持股人的数量及其地位的重要性。国民生活中这一现象的出现代表了与土地及土地所有者相分离的不由个人负责的财富的出现,而且这也意味着(不由个人负责的财富)几乎在同等程度上与由个人负责的商业管理的分离。在整个19世纪,美洲、非洲、印度、澳大利亚及欧洲的部分国家的发展靠的是英国的资本,因此,在世界走向工业化的过程中英国的股东们大发其财。从以上的论述可以看出,作者认为:有限公司的发展引起了资本与经营的分离,投资者(股东)并不实际参加经营,而是坐吃红利(dividends)或有时参加些间接管理;而真正的管理者未必再是公司的拥有者。这一点从第三段的论述也同样可以看出。
  
  B意为:经理对资本的所有权。
  
  C意为:劳资两个阶级的出现。劳资两个阶级早在资本主义的形成时期就已经存在了。
  
  D意为:股东对市办买卖的参与。
  
  61.(C)意为:有限公司太大以至于运转艰难。本文并未提到这一点。
  
  A意为:股东不了解工人的需要。这一点在第三段第一句说得很清楚。该句可译为:这样的股东根本就不了解自己持股的公司里的工人们的生活、思想和需要,因此。他们对劳资双方的关系有不良影响。
  
  B意为:老公司的老板更了解自己的工人。第三段第二、三句指出,公司的拿薪水的执行经理与工人和他们的需要有更直接的关系。但是,与现在正在消失的世袭制的旧家族企业的老板相比,即使是他也很少有过去那种对工人的熟悉程度。的确,仅经营的规模和雇用工人的数量两方面就使得这种个人关系的建立成为不可能的事。
  
  C意为:工会似乎起一个正面作用。第三段第三、四句指出,然而,值得庆幸的是,至少在所有技术行业,工会与日俱增的力量使得工人们可以同他们的雇主平起平坐。罢工与封厂的严酷惩罚使双方学会了互相尊重,明白了公平协商的价值。可见,在这方面,工会起到了保护工人的积极作用。
  
  62.(D)提问中is critical of意为:对……持批评态度。
  
  第二段第四句将股东阶层称为饱食终日(comfortable)者,他们与别人的关系仅限于抽取红利,他们偶尔也参加一次股东会,对企业的管理指手画脚(dictate their orders)。第三段指出,他们不了解工人,不关心工人。这里使用的显然是一种批评的语气。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

  [参考译文] 这种变化通过引入许多的专业因素从而适应了这个新时代的技术要求,并且它(这种变化)防止了效率的降低。这种效率的降低在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二代和第三代人(领导公司)的时候,经常会毁掉那些家族公司的财富。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 The change met…requirements…and prevented the decline…。其中 by engaging a large professional element 是介词词组作状语,说明 met the technical requirements of the new age 的方式。decline in efficiency 后面的 that 引导定语从句修饰前面的 decline in efficiency。

  [阅读重点] 此句的阅读关键在于抓住句子的主干,即主要谓语动词,这样就能把握句子的基本结构,从而明白句子的主要意思。engage 在这里的意思是使卷入,涉及。
  
  2、Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.

  [参考译文] 这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的操纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他们作为一个阶级的重要性,这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素,这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任,而且几乎同样与公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。
  
  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主干结构是…manipulation…increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class…。其中 an element 是 class 的同位语,representing irresponsible wealth 是现在分词作定语修饰前面的 element,detached from 则是过去分词作后置定语,相当于是省略了 which is 的定语从句。and 连接两个 detached from,都修饰前面的 wealth。
  
  [阅读重点] 理解 an element 是 a class 的同位语是理解此句的关键。只要分清句子的主语、谓语动词的中心词,就能够抓住句子的主要意思。在速度的时候,也可以先抓住主句而略过 an element 后面的部分不看。另外句中一些短语的意思也会影响到对整句的理解,如:detach from 与……相分离;irresponsible wealth 不负责任的财富,在本句中指的是股东们虽然拥有大量财富,但并不参与公司的运作,不承担任何经营管理的责任。
  
  3、The shareholders as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good.

  [参考译文] 这样的股东对他拥有股份的公司所雇用的工人们的生活、思想和需求一无所知,而且他们对劳资双方的关系都不会产生积极的影响。
  
  [结构剖析] 这个句子是 and 连接的两个并列句。第一个句子的主干结构是 The shareholders had no knowledge…。在第一个句子中,employed 作定语修饰前面的workmen,相当于省略了who were (employed by)……。which 引导定语从句 in which he held shares 修饰前面的 company。第二句的主干结构 his influence…was not good 是常见的主语+系动词+表语结构。
 
  [阅读重点] 第一分句中要认清 employed by 和后面 which 引导的从句都修饰什么成分的。另外,在阅读本句中,指代关系也非常重要,要看清代词 he 和 his 都是指代前面的 shareholders。

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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(三)

  Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher's pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. Scientific creationism, which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of non-fundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard scientific creationism as bad science and bad religion.
  
  The first four chapters of Kitcher's book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.
  
  Kitcher is philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The non-specialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: This book stands for reason itself. And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  
  67. Creationism in the passage refers to ________.
  
  (A)evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe
  
  (B)a notion of the creation of religion
  
  (C)the scientific explanation of the earth formation
  
  (D)the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe
  
  68. Kitcher's book is intended to ________.
  
  (A)recommend the views of the evolutionists
  
  (B)expose the true features of creationists
  
  (C)curse bitterly at this opponents
  
  (D)launch a surprise attack on creationists
  
  69. From the passage we can infer that ________.
  
  (A)reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate
  
  (B)creationists do not base their argument on reasoning
  
  (C)evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists
  
  (D)creationism is supported by scientific findings
  
  70. This passage appears to be a digest of ________.
  
  (A)a book review
  
  (B)a scientific paper
  
  (C)a magazine feature
  
  (D)a newspaper editorial
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  67.(D)

  意为:关于宇宙起源的虚假理论。
  
  在本文中,作者将造物主义理论(或创世主义理论)与进化论对立而论,指出前者的基础是宗教而不是科学,而且,几乎所有的科学家和大部分非原教旨主义宗教领袖都越来越将所谓科学的造物主义理论看做既不是好科学也不是好的宗教。Kitcher的书对造物主义理论进行了深刻的批判。参阅第一段。
  
  A意为:有关宇宙起源的真正意义上的进化论。
  
  B意为:宗教创立的思想。
  
  C意为:地球形成的科学解释。
  
  68.(B)

  意为:揭露了造物主义理论的真实面目。
  
  第二段指出,他利用合适的机会(at appropriate places)对造物主义理论进行了批判。在最后三章,他摘掉了手套,将造物主义者狠狠地揍了一顿。他描述了他们的纲领及(骗人)手段,对那些不了解他们的把戏的人来说,(Kitcher所揭露出的)他们的欺骗程度和歪曲程度会令人感到吃惊和厌恶。考虑到他们的基本动机是宗教的,人们也许期望在他们身上看到更多的基督徒行为(但他们欺骗人民、歪曲事实)。
  
  A意为:推崇进化论的观点。Kitcher的确推崇进化论,但从书的章节安排来看,本书更着重于对造物主义的批判。
  
  C意为:狠狠地咒骂了他的对手。
  
  D意为:对造物主义者发起了突然袭击。
  
  69.(B)

  意为:造物主义的论点不是建立在推理之上的。
  
  参阅第67题题解。文章最后一句指出,它的确代表了理性本身,如果理性是造物主义理论与进化论之争的惟一裁判者,问题就容易解决了。本句是一个虚拟条件句,等于说:all would be well if reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  
  A意为:在这场争论中,推理起了决定性作用。注意:reason(理性)与reasoning(推理)意思不同。
  
  C意为:对专家以外的人来说,进化论太难。第三段第二句指出,不是专家至少也能了解一下支持进化论的数据的性质及其论点。
  
  D意为:科学发现支持了造物主义理论。
  
  70.(A)
  
  本文是一个书评摘要。这从第二、三段就可以一目了然。
  
  B意为:科学论文。
  
  C意为:杂志特写。
  
  D意为:报纸社论。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programs and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise.
  
  [参考译文] 在最后三章中,他脱下手套,将神造论者好好地揍了一顿。他描述了他们的活动和战术,而且,对于那些对神造论者的做事方式不熟悉的人来说,神造论者的欺骗和扭曲事实的程度可能会令这些人有一种不快的诧异。
  
  [结构剖析] 第一句话的主体结构是…he takes off…and gives…,第二句是 and 连接的两个并列句。在第二个分句中,前面插入了一个介词词组 for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists,其中 unfamiliar 相当于省略了 who are 的定语从句,修饰 those。
  
  [阅读重点] 第一句话中,作者把写书比喻成拳击,因而要抨击神造说/特创论的时候,用了 takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating 这样的句子。第二句中,关键要弄清楚 their programs and tactics, their deception and distortion 中的两个 their 指代的都是 creationists,而不是指那些对神造论者的处事方式不熟悉的人。
  
  2、On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: This book stands for reason itself. And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  
  [参考译文] 在这本杰出的书的外纸封面上,史蒂芬?杰伊?古尔德写道:这本书本身就代表理性。而它确实是这样的-而且如果理性成为神造论/进化论之间的辩论中的惟一评判标准的话,一切就都好办了。
  
  [结构剖析] 第一句话中是主语+谓语动词+直接引语。第二句表示对第一句中的观点的赞同,破折号后作进一步解释;其中隐含一个 if 引导的状语从句表示虚拟语气。在正式的文体中,倒装可以用来代替 if 引导的表示假设的状语从句。were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate 相当于 if reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 so it does 的用法:so+主语+助动词,表示对前面表述的观点的赞同,注意这一结构与 so+助动词+主语 结构的区别。后者表示也的意思,只用在肯定句当中。另外应注意破折号后解释部分中的条件句里时态的运用:if 条件状语从句中使用过去时 were,主句中用过去将来时 would do,是作出与现在事实相反的假设。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  ①The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life.
  
  [参考译文] 所有这些书的目的都是要努力向迷惑而且通常还没有被启发的普通民众解释:不可能有两种同样站得住脚的关于宇宙和生命的起源和演化的科学理论同时存在。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 The goal… will be to try to explain…,其中 explain 后面接的是双宾语:explain to sb. sth.,这里 sth. 是 that 引导的宾语从句 there are not…。
  
  [阅读重点] all 指代上文提到的书籍,要注意 origin 和 evolution 是并列的,而universe 和 life 是并列的。而 confused 和 unenlightened 也是并列的。
  
  ②Scientific creationism, which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science.
  
  [参考译文] 科学的神造说/特创论-不论什么时候谈到进化的科学解释的时候,某些人就会要求在教室里获得同等的时间来解释这一学说-是以宗教为基础的,而不是以科学为基础。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主体结构是… creationism is based… on religion, not science,其中which 引导了一个非限定性定语从句 which is being pushed by some for equal time in the classroom…修饰 creationism,在这一定语从句中,whenever 引导了一个时间状语从句 whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given。
  
  [阅读重点] 首先要理解非限定性定语从句的用法,另外,在阅读中可以先跳过非限定性定语从句,只看句子的主干。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. creationism 神造说,特创论(一种反进化论的学说)
  
  2. rumor has it 据传言说

  [大纲词汇] rumor/ rumour n.传闻,谣言

  [经典例句] Rumor has it that more than 20 people died in the accident.
  
  3. pipeline 供应线

  [大纲词汇] pipeline n.管道,管线
  
  4. unenlighted 未受启蒙的

  [大纲词汇] enlighten v.启发,启蒙,教导

  [衍生词汇] enlightened a.开明的,有知识的,文明的 enlightening a.有启迪作用的enlightenment n.开明,启发 unenlightened a.未受启发的,愚昧无知的,落后的

  [经典例句] He regarded most people as unenlightened.
  
  5. citizenry 老百姓

  [大纲词汇] citizen n.公民;市民,平民

  [衍生词汇] citizenry n.〔总称〕公民;市民;老百姓
  
  6. cosmology 宇宙论

  [大纲词汇] cosmic a.宇宙的

  [衍生词汇] cosmology n.宇宙论,宇宙哲学
  
  7. geology 地质学

  [大纲词汇] geology n.地质学
  
  5. biology 生物学

  [大纲词汇] biology n.生物学
  
  9. consistent 前后一致的

  [大纲词汇] consistent a.(with)前后一致的,始终如一的

  [经典例句] What he said was consistent with what he did.
  
  10. unified 统一的

  [大纲词汇] unify n.使联合;使同意;使相同,使一致


  [经典例句] It is their strong wish that the country should be unified.

  11. constantly

  [大纲词汇] constant a.经常的,不断的;坚定的;永恒的;忠实的

  [衍生词汇] constantly ad.经常地,不断地

  [经典例句] The world is changing constantly.
  
  12. virtually 实际上

  [大纲词汇] virtual a.实际上的,事实上的

  [衍生词汇] virtually ad实际上,事实上

  [经典例句] The city virtually disappeared in the tornado.
  
  13. majority 大多数

  [大纲词汇] major a.(较)大的,(较)重要的 n.专业,主修科目;专业学生,少校v. (in)主修,专攻 majority n.多数,大多数

  [经典例句] The majority of the Senate voted against the motion.
  
  14. nonfundamentalist 非原教旨主义者

  [大纲词汇] fundamental a.基础的,基本的;n.[pl.]基本原则,基本原理

  [衍生词汇] fundamentalist n.原教旨主义者 nonfundamentalist n.非原教旨主义者
  
  15. glve an introduction to 介绍……
  
  [大纲词汇] introduction n.(to)介绍;传入,引进;导言,导论,绪论

  [经典例句] The mayor give his guest a brief introduction to his city.
  
  16.appropriate适当的[大纲词汇] appropriate a. (to)适当的,恰如其分的[经典例句] He intended to propose his plan in appropriate time.
  
  17. take off 脱下

  [大纲词汇] takeoff 拿走;脱下;起飞

  [经典例句] He helped the old lady to take off her coat.
  
  15. give…a good beating 把…痛打一顿

  [大纲词汇] beat v.打,敲;打败,战胜;(心脏等)跳动,搏动 n.敲打,敲击声,节拍;(心脏等)跳动,搏动

  [衍生词汇] beating n.拍打,捶打;打败

  [经典例句] The Russian troop gave a good beating to their enemy.
  
  19. tactics 策略

  [大纲词汇] tactics n.策略,战术

  [经典例句] This is a fairly common tactics among junior executive.
  
  20. extent 程度

  [大纲词汇] extent n.广度,宽度,长度;程度,限度

  [经典例句] What he did exceeded the extent of his authority.
  
  21. deception 欺骗

  [大纲词汇] deceive v.欺骗,蒙蔽

  [衍生词汇] deception n.欺骗,蒙蔽

  [经典例句] He was furious at the deception of his friends.
  
  22. distortion 歪曲

  [大纲词汇] distort v.歪曲,扭曲

  [衍生词汇] distortion n.歪曲,扭曲,变形

  [经典例句] What we have heard is a total distortion of facts.
  
  23. motivation 动力

  [大纲词汇] motive n.动机,目的

  [衍生词汇] motivation n.提供动机;动力,诱因,刺激

  [经典例句] The child has not found any motivation for learning.
  
  24. philosopher 哲学家

  [大纲词汇] philosopher n.哲学家,哲人 philosophy n.哲学
  
  25. in part 部分来说

  [经典例句] He failed in part because of his carelessness.
  
  26. clarity 清晰

  [大纲词汇] clarity n.清晰,明晰 clarify v.澄清,阐明

  [经典例句] I remembered the scene with complete clarity.
  
  27. effectiveness 有效

  [大纲词汇] effective a.有效的,生效的

  [衍生词汇] effectiveness n.有效

  [经典例句] No one doubts the effectiveness of the drug.
  
  28. nonspecialist 非专家

  [大纲词汇] specialist n.专家 specialize v. ( in)专攻,专门研究,专业化

  specialty n.特性,特质;专业,专长

  [衍生词汇] nonspecialist非专家
  
  29. notion 概念

  [大纲词汇] notion n.概念,想法,意念,看法,观点

  [经典例句] Her notion of rural life is a lot of sunshine and fun.
  
  30. dust jacket 包在书外起保护和装饰作用的纸封面
  
  31. in its true sense 真正意义上的

  [经典例句] His behavior in its true sense has showed his indifference to others.
  
  32. opponent 反对者

  [大纲词汇] opponent n.对手,反对者,敌手;a. 二对立的,对抗的

  [经典例句] His opponents claimed that he had accepted bribes.
  
  33. book review 书评

  [大纲词汇] review v.回顾;复习;n.回顾;复习;评论

  [经典例句] His performance got mixed reviews.
  
  34. editorial 社论

  [大纲词汇] editorial n.社论
  
  全文翻译
  
  有传言说,有20多本关于创世纪论与进化论之争的书即将出版,有几本已经面世了。所有这些书的目的是试图告诉那些迷糊而且常常是还不开通的芸芸众生:就宇宙和生命的起源与发展问题而言,不可能存在两种都成立的科学理论。对于所发生的一切,宇宙学、地质学、生物学已经提供了一贯的、统一的并且是在不断完善的解释。而科学创世纪论-当课堂上讲授进化论时,有些人就想争抢相同的课时来解释它-是基于宗教,而非科学的。实际上,所有科学家和大多数非原教旨主义宗教领袖们都已将科学创世纪论看作是拙劣的科学和拙劣的宗教。
  
  金切尔这本书的前四章简单地介绍了进化论。作者在合适的地方引入了对创世纪论者的批评并提供了后者的回答。在书的后三章,他毫不客气地对创世纪论者进行了猛烈抨击。他揭露了这些人的纲领和手段,对那些不了解创世纪论者惯用手法的人来说,其欺骗和歪曲事实的程度会让他们感到气愤和吃惊。由于他们的基本动机是宗教,人们原本还期待他们会做出更具基督精神的作为。
  
  金切尔是位哲学家,这也许能部分说明他的立论为何明确而有说服力。非专业人士起码可以了解支持进化论的各种数据和观点。关于创世纪论者的最后一章对每个人来说都阐述得极为清楚。这部优秀作品的护封上引用了斯蒂芬·杰·古尔德的一句话,本书赌注是理性。的确如此-如果理性是创世纪论和进化论之争的惟一裁判,一切问题就已解决了。

TOP

考研英语范文阅读模拟议试题及答案解析(四)

Personality is to a large extent inherent-A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
  
  One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the win at all costs moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: Rejoice, we conquer!
  
  By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
  
  Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.
  
  If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A- type stock. B's are important and should be encouraged.
  
  63. According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ________.
  
  (A)impatient  (B)considerate  (C)aggressive  (D)agreeable
  
  64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because ________.
  
  (A)the pressure is too great on the students
  
  (B)some students are bound to fail
  
  (C)failure rates are too high
  
  (D)the results of examinations are doubtful
  
  65. The selection of medical professionals is currently based on ________.
  
  (A)candidates' sensitivity  (B)academic achievements
  
  (C)competitive spirit        (D)surer values
  
  66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.
  
  (A)the personality of a child is well established at birth
  
  (B)family influence dominates the shaping of one's characteristics
  
  (C)the development of one's personality is due to multiple factors
  
  (D)B-type characteristics can find no place in a competitive society
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  63.(C)
  
  意为:攻击性的,好斗的。
  
  文章第一、二、三段都提到:A型性格的人在竞争的环境中成长,形成了他们的性格特征。第二段第三句直接用competitive(争强好胜的,爱竞争的)一词描述A型性格的人。
  
  A意为:缺乏耐心的、不耐心的。这也许是他们有时候所表现出的性格特征,但不是他们的一般性性格特征。
  
  B意为:体贴人的,为人着想的。这与事实形成鲜明的对比。
  
  D意为:和蔼的,易相处的,使人愉快的。
  
  64.(B)

  意为:有些学生肯定不及格。
  
  be bound to意为:肯定、注定。问题中be opposed意为反对。第三段指出,学校中最糟糕的竞争方式(by far用于强调最高级形式)是极力强调考试(disproportionate意为:不相称的,过分的),很少有学校让学生集中精力做自己善于做的事情。通过考试来竞争有无益处(merits)是个值得探讨的问题(questionable),但是,明知道自己会失败还去竞争的做法肯定(对人的心理,如:自信心、自我认识等)是有害的。
  
  A意为:给学生造成的压力过大。
  
  C意为:不及格率过高。
  
  (A)、(C)文中都末提到。
  
  D意为:考试成绩(或结果)值得怀疑。
  
  这与原文表达的内容不一样,原文并非是说考试成绩是否真正反映学生的真实水平或能力值得怀疑,而是说考试这种形式作为—个教学环节是否合适值得进一步探讨。
  
  65.(B)
  
  原文最后一段指出,如果学校不过多地注重于(preoccupation…… with)学习结果,就可以花更多的时间教些更有价值的东西。选择护理方面的人-尤其是医疗护理人员-也许应该看他们是否心细、是否有同情心,而不应看他们化学成绩如何。只从A型性格的人中选择医生的做法是不可取的,B型性格的人也是社会所需要的,应该受到相应的鼓励。在这段里。作者对现在人的培养及选择标准进行了批评。B意为:学习成绩(或学术成就)。问题中currently意为:目前,当前。
  
  A意为:申请者的敏感程度。指:他是否对他人的行为敏感,即是否细心。
  
  C意为:竞争精神。原文是说根据成绩,即:看重的是结果。
  
  D意为:更可靠的价值。即:更可靠或可依赖或有价值(对社会有用)的东西。
  
  66.(C)
  
  文章第一段指出,个性在很大程度上是先天形成的(inherent),但是,环境对它也有深刻影响,环境包括社会、学校与家庭。本文主要谈论了学校教育对学生的性格形成的影响。C意为:个性的发展受多种(multiple)因素的影响。
  
  A意为:儿童的个性在出生时早已确立。
  
  B意为:家庭对儿童性格特征的形成起主导作用。
  
  (A)、(B)两个选择项都不正确,因为,这两种说法都是片面的、极端的。儿童的个性发展受多种因素的影响。
  
  D意为:在高度竞争的社会中,B型性格的人是不需要的(或是找不到位置的)。这正是作者想要驳斥的观点。作者指出:世界需要各种性格的人。另请参阅第65题题解。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
  
  [参考译文] 但环境也一定对其有深刻的影响,因为如果竞争对父母来说很重要的话,那它也可能成为孩子生活中的一个重要因素。
  
  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是… the environment must also have a profound effect。后面的since 引导一个原因状语从句,而这个从句又是一个 if 引导的条件主从复合句。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 profound 的词义为意义深远的。另外要看到最后一个逗号后面的 it所指代的是 competition。
  
  2、The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
  
  [参考译文] 通过考试进行竞争本身的优点就有些让人怀疑,但是如果在明知注定要失败的情况下还要竞争就肯定是有害的了。
  
  [结构剖析] 本句由两个子句构成,中间有一个 but 表示意思的转折。
  
  [阅读重点] 要正确理解本句,重点在于抓住单词的正确意思。questionable 可疑的,值得疑问的;而后面的 knowledge 如果理解成知识那么这句话就怎么也看不懂了,在这里它的意思应该是知道,知晓,因此 in the knowledge of 应被理解为在了解……的情况下。
  
  3、Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy.
  
  [参考译文] 也许对从事照顾他人的职业,特别是医疗事业(从业人员)的选择应该更少地基于化学成绩而更多地基于对敏感个性和同情心的考虑。
  
  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是… selection…could be made less by… and more by…。两个逗号隔开的是对于 caring professions 的进一步具体说明。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意在阅读的时候抓住 less… and more…的结构,同时注意 more 后面的可能要更加重要一些。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1、The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows.

  [参考译文] 现在这种让孩子们和其同学或时间竞争的热情导致了一个双层结构,在这个结构里面善于竞争的A类好像在某个方面要比他们B类的同辈更胜一筹。
  
  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是 The current passion… produces a two-layer system;passion后面的介词 for 的宾语比较复杂,是一个 make sb. do sth. 的结构,而主句的宾语 a two-layer system 后面有一个非限定性的定语从句。
  
  [阅读重点] 可以先抓主干,然后再分析其它成分,另外在理解的时候也要有一定的想象力,比如 compete against the clock 不能从字面上理解为和钟表竞争,而应该理解成与时间竞争/和时间赛跑。
  
  2、One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution.

  [参考译文] 孩子们吸收A类个性的地方是学校。就学校的本质而言,它是一个高度竞争的机构。
  
  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是 One place…is school,这个简单句的主语和谓语都有一个定语从句修饰,前面的是限定性的,后面的是非限定性的,并且在其里面还有一个插入成分 by its very nature。
  
  [阅读重点] 可以先抓主干,然后再分析那两个定语从句,另外注意 soak up 的意思是吸收,摄取,其实即使我们不是很清楚这个词组的意思,只要我们抓住 soak 的基本意思浸泡,浸湿,浸透,词组的意思也能猜出来。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. to a large extent 在很大程度上

  [大纲词汇] extent n.广度,宽度,长度;程度,限度

  [经典例句] His attitude will influence the result to a large extent.
  
  2. inherent 天生的

  [大纲词汇] inherent a.固有的,内在的,天生的 inherit v.继承

  [经典例句] Parents should be waken to the inherent nature of their children.
  
  3. bring about 造成

  [大纲词汇] bring about 带来,造成

  [经典例句] The new policy brought about many improvements in the employment of women.
  
  4. offspring 后代

  [大纲词汇] offspring n.子孙,后代;结果,产物
  
  5. profound 深刻的

  [大纲词汇] profound a.深刻的,意义深远的;渊博的,造诣深的

  [经典例句] The city has undergone a profound change in the past few years.
  
  6. soak up 吸收

  [大纲词汇] soak v.浸泡,浸湿,浸透

  [经典例句] The earth soaks up rainwater.
  
  7. sport achievements 夸耀成就

  [大纲词汇] sport n.运动;pl.运动会 sportsman n.运动员

  [扩充词义] sport v.炫耀,夸示

  [经典例句] The young man sported a roll of money his father gave him to his friends.
  
  8. compete against 和…竞争

  [大纲词汇] compete v.比赛;竞争 competent a.有能力的,胜任的 competitin n.比赛;竞争 competitive a.竞争的,比赛的 competitor n.竞争者,对手

  [经典例句] He competed with other fellow colleagues for the position.
  
  9. keen 热衷于

  [大纲词汇] keen a.锋利的;敏锐的;敏捷的;(on)热心的,渴望的

  [经典例句] He is very keen to visit China.
  
  10. consequece 后果

  [大纲词汇] consequence n.结果,后果,影响;重要性 in consequence因此,结果 in consequence of 由于…的缘故 consequently ad.因而,所以

  [经典例句] Your mistake will surely bring about unfavorable consequence.
  
  11. marathon 马拉松长跑
  
  12. rejoice 高兴

  [大纲词汇] rejoice v.(使)欣喜,(使)高兴

  [经典例句] He rejoiced at his friend's good fortune.
  
  13. conquer 战胜

  [大纲词汇] conquer v.征服,战胜,占领;克服,破除(坏习惯)conquest n.征服

  [经典例句] Napoleon conquered a number of European countries in a few years.
  
  14. by far …最…
  
  [大纲词汇] by far…得多,最

  [经典例句] His explanation is clear by far.
  
  15. disproportionate 不成比例的

  [大纲词汇] proportion n.比例;部分,份儿;均衡,相称 in proportion 与…成比例的

  [衍生词汇] proportionate a.成比例的;均衡的,相称的 disproportionate a.不成比例的,不相称的

  [经典例句] A disproportionate number of fatal accidents take place at night.
  
  16. emphasis on 强调

  [大纲词汇] emphasis n.强调,重点 emphasize v.强调

  [经典例句] The teacher lay emphasis on the importance of the assignment.
  
  17. concentrate on 专注于

  [大纲词汇] concentrate v.(on)集中,专心;浓缩;n.浓缩物 concentration n.集中;专心,专注

  [经典例句] He concentrates solely on law studies.
  
  18. merit 优点

  [大纲词汇] merit n.优点,价值,功绩;v.值得,应得

  [经典例句] The new method has few merits.
  
  19. questionable 可疑的

  [大纲词汇] question n.问题,议题;发问,询问 v.询问,审问;怀疑,对…表示疑问 in question 正在考虑 questionable a.可疑的,不可靠的

  [经典例句] The accuracy of the news is questionable.
  
  20. in the knowledge of 在了解…的情况下

  [大纲词汇] know v.知道,了解;认识,熟悉;精通 know as 被认为是

  knowledge n.知识,学问;知道,了解

  [经典例句] He felt safe in the knowledge of his enemy's death.
  
  21. change into 变为

  [大纲词汇] change n.变换,调换,交换,互换;改变,变化 v.改变,变化;零钱,找头

  [经典例句] Water change into ice at zero degree.
  
  22. fit …to 与……相称

  [大纲词汇] fit v.使适合,使配合,适应;安装,装配 a. (for,to)适合的,恰当的;健康的,强健的 fitting a.适当的,恰当的;n. [pl.]配件,附件;装配,安装

  [经典例句] One should fit his action to the world.
  
  23. personality 性格

  [大纲词汇] person n.人;本人,自身 in person 亲自 personal a.个人的,私人的;亲自的,本人的;身体的,人身的 personality n.人格,个性

  [经典例句] Environment shapes personality.
  
  24. preoccupation 主要关心的事

  [大纲词汇] occupy v.占,占用;占据,占领;使忙碌,使从事

  [衍生词汇] occupation n.从事;工作 preoccupy v.使全神贯注,使入神;抢先占有

  preoccupation n.抢先占有;全神贯注;使人全神贯注的事

  [经典例句] Environmental protection is clearly their main preoccupation.
  
  25. academic 学术的

  [大纲词汇] academic a.学院的,学术的 academy n.学院,研究会,学术团体

  [经典例句] The professor puts greater emphasis on academic studies.
  
  26. lessen 减轻

  [大纲词汇] lessen v.减少,减轻

  [词汇比较] lesson n.功课;教训

  [经典例句] The latest news lessened their worries.
  
  27. caring profession 照顾他人的职业
  
  28. consideration 考虑

  [大纲词汇] consider v.认为,把…看作;考虑,细想;体谅,照顾 considerable a.相当大(或多)的,可观的,值得考虑的 considerate a.考虑周到的,体谅的

  consideration n.需要考虑的事,理由;考虑,思考;体谅,照顾

  [经典例句] The matter is receiving the serious consideration of the board.
  
  29. sensitivity 敏感

  [大纲词汇] sensitive a. (to)sensitivity n.

  [经典例句] The machine must be used with care considering its sensitivity.
  
  30. sympathy 同情心

  [大纲词汇] sympathy n.同情,同情心,赞同 sympathetic a.同情的,共鸣的sympathize v.(with)同情,怜悯;共鸣,同感

  [经典例句] Those people need our help and sympathy.
  
  31. exclusively 仅仅

  [大纲词汇] exclusive a.专有的,独占的;除外的,排他的 exclusively ad.仅仅;专门地,排他地

  [经典例句] The article was written exclusively for Newsweek.
  
  32. stock 某一类的人

  [大纲词汇] stock n.备料,库存,现货;股票,公债,存储 in stock现有,备有

  [扩充词义] stock n.祖先,世系,家族,类

  [经典例句] He descended from Jewish stock.
  
  33. aggressive 有进取心的

  [大纲词汇] aggressive a.

  [衍生词汇] aggression n.

  [经典例句] The councilor appealed to the city to take aggressive action.
  
  34. be opposed to 反对

  [大纲词汇] oppose v.反对,反抗

  [衍生词汇] opposed a.反对的,对抗的 be opposed to 反对 opposition n.反对,反抗;抵抗,对立

  [经典例句] We are firmly opposed to power politics.
  
  35. draw conclusion 下结论

  [大纲词汇] conclude v.结束,终止;断定,下结论;缔结,协议 conclusion n.结束,终结;结论,推论 in conclusion 最后,总之

  [经典例句] He drew a conclusion without discussing the matter with others.
  
  36. at birth 生下来时

  [大纲词汇] birth n.出生,分娩;出身,血统

  [经典例句] The child weighed 7 pounds at birth.
  
  37. due to 由于

  [大纲词汇] due a. (to)应支付的;(车,船等)应到达的;应有的 due to 由于,因为

  [经典例句] The ship was late due to the heavy storm.
  
  全文翻译
  
  性格在很大程度上是先天形成的-A型性格的父母会有A型性格的子女。但环境也一定对其有深刻的影响,因为如果竞争对父母来说很重要的话,那它也可能成为孩子生活中的一个重要因素。
  
  让孩子吸收A型性格的一个地方是学校。学校,就其本质而言,是高度竞争的机构。很多学校采用不惜一切代价获取成功的道德标准并通过炫耀成绩来估量孩子们是否成功。目前热衷于让孩子与同学竞争或与时间赛跑造成了一种双重体制,在这种体制中,竞争性的A型学生在某些方面似乎比B型的学生要好。过分地热衷于获胜会产生危险的后果:记住,第一位跑马拉松的费迪皮迪兹在说完欢呼吧,我们赢了之后几秒便倒地而死。
  
  学校里最糟糕的竞争形式就是不恰当的强调考试。很少有学校允许学生集中精力做他们能做好的事。以考试竞争这种做法的好处本身有点值得怀疑,而明知有人考试会通不过的情况下还要进行竞争,则肯定是有害的。
  
  显然,要将所有A型孩子变成B型孩子既不现实也不可取。这个世界需要各种性格的人,一个重要职责是使孩子的性格适合将来可能从事的工作。这才是最好的管理理念。
  
  如果学校对学业的强调减少一些,也许就有更多的时间教孩子更重要的价值观念。也许对护理职业-特别是医疗护理人员-的选择应少注重化学成绩而多关注他们是否敏感、是否有同情心。只从A型性格的人员中挑选医生的确是个错误。B型性格的人非常重要,应该受到鼓励。

TOP

考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(五)

It was 3: 45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the group's on-line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn't just something that happened in Australia. It's world history.
  
  The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia-where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part-other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.
  
  Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death-probably by a deadly injection or pill-to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a cooling off period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. I'm not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I'd go, because I've watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks, he says.
  
  51. From the second paragraph we learn that ________.
  
  (A)the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries
  
  (B)physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia
  
  (C)changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of the law
  
  (D)it takes time to realize the significance of the law's passage
  
  52. When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means ________.
  
  (A)observers are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the future of euthanasia
  
  (B)similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other countries
  
  (C)observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes
  
  (D)the effect-taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop
  
  53. When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will ________.
  
  (A)face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia
  
  (B)experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient
  
  (C)have an intense fear of terrible suffering
  
  (D)undergo a cooling off period of seven days
  
  54. The author's attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of ________.
  
  (A)opposition  (B)suspicion  (C)approval  (D)indifference
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  51.(D)意为:理解该法获批准的意义尚需要时间。
  
  第二段第一句是该段的主题句,该句意为:其(即这一立法的)整体含义(import)可能需要一段时间才为人彻底理解(sink in)。其实,该段的第二句是对第一句更具体的阐释,该句可译为:北部地方州(此处NT是Northern Territory的缩略形式,指澳大利亚中北部地区)晚期病人权利法的批准使医生和普通人都在思索其道义与实践方面的含义。本段下文提到了支持和反对该法的两种观点。
  
  A意为:在(除澳大利亚以外的)其他国家,对安乐死的反对意见缓慢而至。这一点该段没有提到。实际上,听到该法批准后,远在美国和加拿大的人也很快作出了反应。
  
  B意为:在安乐死这一问题上,医生和普通人观点相同。正像该段第三句所指出的,对于该法的批准,意见分歧很大。有些人松了口气,而有些人-包括教堂、保卫生命权益组织与澳大利亚医学会-对该法进行激烈的抨击,认为它的批准过于仓促。
  
  C意为:技术(条件)的变化应对该法的仓促批准负主要责任。该段第五句意为:在澳大利亚,其他州也将考虑通过制定同样的一项法律来解决安乐死问题,而促成这一形势的是澳大利亚老化的人口、生命延续技术、正在变化的社会态度等因素。可见,这与C所表达的内容不一样。
  
  52.(B)意为:美国、加拿大及其他国家也可能批准类似法律。
  
  第二段最后一句指出,在美国和加拿大死之权利运动正在集结力量,观望者正在等待多米诺骨牌开始倾倒。多米诺骨牌是一种西洋骨牌游戏;游戏中将许多长方形的骨牌竖立排列成行,碰倒第一张时,其余骨牌将依次纷纷倒下。用于比喻时,这种游戏指一系列的连锁反应,即:牵一发而动全身。这里喻指:澳大利亚的形势会波及北美等国家,引起类似的做法。
  
  A意为:观察者对安乐死的未来持观望态度。根据对B的分析,观察者等待的是是否美、加等国会在对安乐死的态度方面步澳之后尘,通过类似立法,而并非是指他们对安乐死态度暖昧、莫衷一是。
  
  C意为:观察者正等待看多米诺游戏的结果。这种解释未免太拘泥于字面的意思。
  
  D意为:所批准的法案的影响也许会最终停止。与原文不符。
  
  53.(A)意为:死时表现出安乐死的平静特征。
  
  这实际上是说他将采用安乐死的方式离开人世。第三段提到,住在达尔文市(位于北部地方州)的尼克森患肺癌,对他来说,允许安乐死的法案的批准意味着他可以心情平静地生活,而无需惧怕将要遭受的死亡的折磨:由死时所产生的呼吸困难所带来的痛苦折磨。他说:从思想认识上讲,我并不怕死,但是,我怕的是如何死去,因为我曾亲眼目睹过医院的病人死时由缺氧而挣扎并抓挠氧气罩的情景。从以上的分析可以看出,尼克森先生知道自己已患绝症并依法为自己选择安乐死的方式告别人世。
  
  B意为:经历肺癌病人所要遭受的痛苦。不对,相反,尼克森将会平静死去。
  
  C意为:对痛苦的折磨极度恐惧。
  
  D意为:将经历7天的平静阶段。第三段指出,根据北部地区新通过的法律,要求安乐死的病人必须具备以下条件:1)该病人必须由两名医生诊断为晚期病人;2)平静考虑7天后,病人签署一个申请证书;3)48小时后再给病人实行安乐死。可见,这里所说的平静7天是让病人(及其家庭)平静、认真地考虑一下是否选择采用安乐死这一形式。
  
  54.(C)意为;赞同。
  
  这是一篇新闻体文章,在新闻体文章中,写作者往往通过引用相关者的观点来结束讨论,并将自己的态度通过引用间接地表述出来。本文以尼克森的话结束了对安乐死的讨论,而尼克森是安乐死的支持者。另外,文章的大部分文字陈述了对安乐死法案的褒扬态度,而反对态度却一带而过。从这两方面来看,作者对安乐死持赞同态度。
  
  A意为:反对。
  
  B意为:怀疑。
  
  D意为:不关心。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill land the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back.
  
  [参考译文] 一些机构终于松了一口气,但是其他一些机构,包括教堂,倡导生命之权的团体和澳大利亚医学协会,尖锐地抨击这个法案,指责法案的通过过于匆忙。但是大势已定,不可逆转。
  
  [结构剖析] 第一句话中,有用逗号松散连接的两个表示对比的句子:Some have breathed…others…bitterly attacked…,其中 others 之后是介词词组:including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association 对 others 进行进一步的解释。its passage 中的 its 指代前面提到的 the bill。第二句使用了被动语态,与第一句是转折关系。
  
  [阅读重点] tide 本意是潮水、潮汐的意思,这里的引申含义是趋势、趋向;turn the tide 使形式转变、改变局面。bill 这里是法案的意思。另外要理解 some 和 others 的对比关系。
  
  2、In Australia-where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part-other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia.
  
  [参考译文] 在澳大利亚-人口老龄化,延长寿命的技术和变化着的社会态度,这些因素都在发挥作用-其他的州也会考虑制定相似的关于安乐死的法律。
  
  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主体结构是… other states are going to consider…。句首的 In Australia 是介词词组表示地点状语,后面 where 引导定语从句 where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part,进一步解释 Australia 的具体情况。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意破折号中说各种因素都发挥了作用,是指对其它州考虑制定关于安乐死的法律这件事而言的。另外注意 consider 的用法,consider 后面一般接 V-ing 的形式或 that 引导的宾语从句。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1、After six months of arguing and final 16hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die.

  [参考译文] 经过了六个月的争论以及最后16个小时激烈的议会辩论,澳大利亚北部地区成了世界上第一个允许医生终止希望死去的绝症病人生命的立法当局。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主体结构是 Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority…;句首是表示时间的介词词组作状语:after six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates;后面的动词不定式 to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die 相当于定语从句 which allows doctors to…,修饰 legal authority;who 引导定语从句 who wish to die 修饰前面的 patients。
  
  [阅读重点] 理解句子的关键在于剔除庞杂的修饰成分,抓住句子的主干。
  
  2、After a cooling off period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met.

  [参考译文] 在七天的冷静期之后,病人可以签署一张申请证书。再等48小时之后,他要求死去的愿望就可以实现了。
  
  [结构剖析] 两个句子都是简单句。第一句中前面是介词词组作时间状语:After a cooling off period of seven days。第二句使用了被动语态。
  
  [阅读重点] cooling off 这里是指给病人充足的考虑时间以做出冷静的决定。meet 这里是满足的意思,可以和 demand、need、requirement 等和 wish 类似的词连用。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. take vote 表决

  [大纲词汇] vote n.投票,表;选票,选票数;v.投票,表决

  [经典例句] They finally took a vote on the mater.
  
  2. legal authority 合法当局

  [大纲词汇] legal a.法律的,法定的;合法的,正当的 a legal act 合法行为
  
  3. incurably 不可救药地

  [大纲词汇] cure v.(of)治愈,医治;矫正,纠正; n.治愈,痊愈;良药,疗法

  [衍生词汇] curable a.可医治的 incurable a.无法治愈的,不可纠正的 incurably ad.无法治愈地,不可救药地

  [经典例句] He was incurably stubborn on this matter.
  
  4. convincing 令人信服的

  [大纲词汇] convince v.(of)使信服,使确信

  [衍生词汇] convincing a.令人信服的,有说服力的

  [经典例句] His explanation is very convincing.
  
  5. flash on 闪映

  [大纲词汇] flash v.发闪光,闪亮;闪现;n.闪光

  [经典例句] The news flashed on the television.
  
  6. pick up 得到

  [大纲词汇] pick up 拾起,拣起;增加,改进;(偶然)得到;(车船)中途搭(人),中途带(货);获得,学会

  [经典例句] Their message was picked up by the enemy and decoded.
  
  7. executive director 执行总监

  [大纲词汇] executive a.执行的,实施的;n.总经理,董事,行政负责人
  
  8. send it on 继续发送

  [大纲词汇] send n.送,寄;派遣,打发

  [经典例句] She asked me to send the message on to other friends.
  
  9. on-line service 网上服务
  
  10. all day long 整天

  [经典例句] He works on the question all day long to find the right answer.
  
  11. import 含义

  [大纲词汇] import v.进口,输人; n.进口,输人;pl.进口商品,进口物资,主旨,含义

  [经典例句] Hardly anyone caught the full import of the incident.
  
  12. take a while 需要一段时间

  [大纲词汇] while n.一段时间,一会儿

  [经典例句] It takes a while for him to calm down.
  
  13. sink in 被理解

  [大纲词汇] sink v.(使)下沉,下落; n.水池,水槽

  [扩充词汇] sink in 被理解

  [经典例句] Eventually the news sank in.
  
  14. physician 内科医生

  [经典例句] physician n.内科医生
  
  15. implication 牵连

  [大纲词汇] implication n.含义,暗示 imply v.意指;含…意思,暗示

  [扩充词义] implication n.牵连;涉及;密切关系

  [经典例句] The news regulation has grave implication for unemployment.
  
  16. haste 匆忙

  [大纲词汇] haste n.匆忙,急速;草率;v.赶快,匆忙 in haste 匆忙地,草率地

  [衍生词汇] hasty a.匆忙的

  [经典例句] Many people were surprised at the haste of his marriage.
  
  17. passage 通过

  [大纲词汇] passage n.通过,经过;通路;走廊;(一)段落,(一)节

  [经典例句] The opposition party tried to secure the passage of the law.
  
  18. turn back 折回

  [扩充词汇] turn back 折回,返回;改变做法

  [经典例句] There is no turning back once you have signed the contract.
  
  19. play one's part 起作用

  [大纲词汇] play a part(in)起作用

  [经典例句] Ambition played its part in his success.
  
  20. euthanasia 安乐死
  
  21. dominoes 多米诺骨牌(多米诺现象指一个倒下后引起连锁反应而全部倒下)
  
  22. injection 注射

  [大纲词汇] inject v.注射,注人

  [衍生词汇] injection n.注射

  [经典例句] The doctor prescribed an injection of penicillin for his fever.
  
  23. put an end to 使…结束

  [扩充词汇] put an end to 使终止,毁掉

  [经典例句] The accident put an end to her happy life.
  
  24. diagnose 诊断

  [大纲词汇] diagnose v.诊断

  [经典例句] He was diagnosed lung cancer a few days age.
  
  25. terminally 致命地

  [大纲词汇] terminal a.终点站;终端,接线端;计算机终端

  [衍生词汇] terminally ad.致命地,晚期地;终点地

  [经典例句] He was terminally ill.
  
  26. cool off 使冷静下来

  [大纲词汇] cool a.凉的,凉爽的;冷静的,沉着的,冷淡的;v.(使)冷却,(使)冷静

  [扩充词汇] cool off 使冷静下来

  [经典例句] You should give him sometime to cool off his anger.
  
  27. certificate 证明书

  [大纲词汇] certificate n.证(明)书
  
  28. get on with 继续

  [扩充词汇] get on with 继续

  [经典例句] We get on with the meeting after his disruption.
  
  29. haunting 萦绕于心的

  [扩充词汇] haunt v.常去;使苦恼,困扰;布满 haunting a.萦绕于心的,使人不安的

  [经典例句] Man's future is a haunting question to him.
  
  30. terrifying 令人恐惧的

  [大纲词汇] terrify v.使害怕,使惊吓

  [衍生词汇] terrifying a.令人害怕的

  [经典例句] The terrifying scene shocked everyone.
  
  31. point of view 观点

  [大纲词汇] viewpoint n.观点
  
  32. fight for 为…而斗争

  [大纲词汇] fight v./n.打(仗);搏斗,斗争,战斗

  [经典例句] He died in fighting for freedom.
  
  33. claw at 抓,挠

  [大纲词汇] claw n.爪,脚爪

  [扩充词义] claw v.抓,挠

  [经典例句] The emotional stress of those years still claws at her.
  
  34. objection to 反对

  [大纲词汇] object v.(to)反对 objection n.(to)反对,异议

  [经典例句] I have no objection to your proposal.
  
  全文翻译
  
  凌晨3:45进行了最终表决。经过6个月争论和最后16个小时的国会激烈辩论,澳大利亚北部地区(澳北州)成为世界上第一个允许医生根据绝症病人个人意愿来结束其生命的合法当局。这一法案是以令人信服的15票对10票通过。几乎同时,该消息就出现在互联网上。身处地球另一端的加拿大死亡权利执行主席约翰?霍夫塞斯在收到该消息后便通过协会的在线服务死亡之网发了公告。他说:我们整天都在发布公告,因为这件事的意义不在于它是在澳大利亚发生的事情,而是因为这是世界历史的一件大事。
  
  要充分理解这一法案的深刻意义可能需要一段时间。澳北州晚期病人权利法使得无论是内科医生还是普通市民都同样地力图从道义和实际意义两方面来对待这一问题。一些人如释重负,另一些人,包括教会,生命权利组织以及澳大利亚医学会成员都对这一决议及其仓促的通过进行了猛烈的抨击。但这一潮流已无法逆转。在澳大利亚,人口老龄化,延长寿命技术和公众态度的变化都发挥着各自的作用。其他州也将考虑制定类似的法律来处理安乐死问题。在美国和加拿大,死亡权利运动正在积蓄力量。观察家们正在等待多米诺骨牌产生的效应。
  
  根据澳北州所通过的这项新法案,成年病人可以要求安乐死-可能是通过注射致死药剂或服用致死药片-来结束痛苦。但此前病人必须由两名医生诊断其确实已病入膏肓,然后再经过7天的冷静思考期,方可签署一份申请证明。48小时后,才可以满足其安乐死的愿望。对于居住于达尔文现年54岁的肺癌患者利奥德?尼克森来说,这个法律意味着他可以平静地生活下去而无须整天惧怕即将来临的苦难:因呼吸困难而在煎熬中痛苦地死去。从思想上说,我并不害怕死,但我怕的是怎样死,因为我在医院看到过病人在缺氧时苦苦挣扎,用手抓他们的面罩时的情景。他说。

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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(六)

A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.
  
  For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.
  
  The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn't take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.
  
  Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner-amazing. Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
  
  As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to translate cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word friend, the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor's language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
  
  55. In the eyes of visitors from the outside world, ________.
  
  (A)rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US
  
  (B)small-minded officials deserve a serious comment
  
  (C)Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors
  
  (D)most Americans are ready to offer help
  
  56. It could be inferred from the last paragraph that ________.
  
  (A)culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship
  
  (B)courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated
  
  (C)various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends
  
  (D)social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions
  
  57. Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers ________.
  
  (A)to improve their hard life
  
  (B)in view of their long-distance travel
  
  (C)to add some flavor to their own daily life
  
  (D)out of a charitable impulse
  
  58. The tradition of hospitality to strangers ________.
  
  (A)tends to be superficial and artificial
  
  (B)is generally well kept up in the United States
  
  (C)is always understood properly
  
  (D)has something to do with the busy tourist trails
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  55.(D)意为:大部分美国人乐于助人。
  
  文章第一句指出,去过美国的人所带回的印象总是(consistently):大多数美国人表现为友好、礼貌、乐于助人。本文从历史及文化的角度探讨了产生这一现象的原因。
  
  A 意为:粗鲁的出租车司机在美国罕见。
  
  B 意为:心胸狭窄的官员值得严肃的一提(或:应受严肃的批评)。
  
  C 意为:加拿大人不如其邻国(当主要指美国)人民友好。
  
  注意:(A)、(B)、(C)表达的观点都不是第一段中所提到的访美者的观点,第一段的第二、三、四句表达的是本文作者的观点。在作者看来,公平地讲,许多到过加拿大的人对加拿大人也有同感,因此可以说:这是一种北美现象-北美人大都友好、礼貌、乐于助人。同时,在他看来,这种情况也有例外:心胸狭隘的官员、粗鲁的侍者、无礼的出租车司机也不乏其人,但总的来看这并不构成主流。
  
  56.(A)意为:文化影响社会关系。
  
  最后一段的第一句是全段的主题,该句可译为:像其他发达国家一样,在美国,人际关系的背后是一系列复杂的文化符号、信念和习俗。换言之,美国的文化决定了美国人的行为。
  
  B 意为:礼貌的习惯与个人兴趣互相影响。最后一段第五句可译为:仅靠在公共汽车上瞬时相遇来区别礼貌是出自于文化习惯还是个人的兴趣是不够的。根据本段的主旨和全文的主旨,这句话应该理解为:判断一个人表现出的礼貌行为究竟仅产生于其个人素质还是产生于文化的熏陶,仅看其个别的、偶然的行为是不行的。换言之,如果他随时随地表现为礼让,或者,如果生活在某一区域或国家的人都表现为礼让,那末,你才能判定礼貌行为不是一种个人现象,而是一种社会文化现象。
  
  C 意为:各种美德仅表现在朋友关系中。这一点文章最后一段没提到。最后一段所举的朋友一词的例子旨在说明:在不同文化中,相同的概念未必有同一内涵或外延。
  
  D 意为:社会关系等于一系列复杂的文化习俗。根据该段第一句,二者是决定与被决定关系,并非等同关系。见上文分析。
  
  57.(C)意为;为自己的日常生活增添情趣。
  
  第二段指出,在美国历史的很长一段时期(即所谓拓荒时代),对许多地区来说,一个旅行者的到来是很受欢迎的,因为它可以对平时单调的生活起一个调节(break)作用。离群索居的家庭共同的问题是日常生活的单调与寂寞,陌生人或旅行者的到来可以使他们暂时摆脱这种生活状况,另外。他们也可以因此获得外界信息。
  
  A 意为:改善艰苦的生活。根据上文分析可见,陌生人受欢迎的原因主要是因为他们所带来的精神效应,而非物质生活效应。第三段提到,拓荒地区(frontier)的残酷现实也是形成美国人礼貌传统的原因。一个孤独的旅游者有问题自然求助于路边最近的居住点,这对旅游者来说不是一个选择问题(即:他别无选择),对就近的定居者来说,提供必要的帮助也不仅仅是出于怜悯(charitable impulse)。这反映的是日常生活的严酷现实:如果定居者不接收并帮助他,就没有别人了,另外,有一天定居者本人也可能处于同一境地。
  
  B 意为:考虑到他们所做的长途跋涉。
  
  D 意为:出于怜悯。见上文分析。
  
  58.(B)意为:在美国得以广泛的保持。
  
  第二、三段探索了形成美国人友善好客传统的原因之后,第四段指出,虽然现在有许多专门的机构帮助旅行者,但是,友善好客的旧传统在美国仍根探蒂固,这突出表现在远离旅游热线的一些小城市中。本段最后一句指出,许多美国人随意表现出的友善不应该被看作是表面或虚假的应酬,而应该看作是一种历史文化现象。另外,文章最后一段指出,友善好客是倍受美国人珍视的美德,他们同样希望邻国人和其他外国人也表现出这一美德。
  
  A 意为:经常是表面上的、虚假的。见上文分析。
  
  C 意为:总是能被正确理解。相反,第四段指出,许多外国人对美国人的一些友好表示感到不可思议(amazing),这反映了他们对美国历史文化传统的不理解。参阅第四段第三、四、五句。
  
  D 意为:与一些旅游热线有关。不对,见上文分析。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.
  
  [参考译文] 陌生人和旅游者是受欢迎的消遣的来源,他们带来外部世界的新闻。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 Strangers and travelers were…and brought…。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 diversion 在这里的含义是解闷,取乐的事情,消遣,娱乐,而不是转移,转向的意思。
  
  2、The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
  
  [参考译文] 许多美国人的这种随意的友好态度不应该被看成是肤浅的或虚假的,而应该被作为一种历史上发展而来的文化传统的结果来解释。
  
  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主干结构是 The casual friendliness should be interpreted neither as A nor B…but as C,使用了被动语态。其中 neither…nor… 结构后用的是同样词性的成分:形容词 superficial 和 artificial。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 neither…nor…but 结构的使用:既不是……也不是……而是……,重点在but之后。as the/a result of:作为……的结果,由于……而……。
  
  3、As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships.
  
  [参考译文] 就如同在任何一个发达社会里一样,在美国,所有社会相互关系下面都隐含着一系列复杂的文化信号、假设和传统观念。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 … cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies…interrelationships。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 as 在这里是一个代词,表示这一情况,这一事实。可以参考以下的例句来理解 as 的用法:The night had turned cold, as is usual around here. 夜晚变得很冷,在这一带经常如此。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1、There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  [参考译文] 当然,例外是存在的。在美国,心胸狭窄的官员,粗鲁的侍者,和没有礼貌的出租车司机也并不少见。然而人们常常得出这样的观察意见,这使得它值得被讨论一下。
  
  [结构剖析] 第一个句子使用了 there be 句型,其中 of course 是插入语。第二句是主语+系动词+表语结构。第三句话中使用了 so…… that 结构:其中 made so frequently 是过去分词作定语,修饰前面的 observation。

  [阅读重点] 第一句中的 of course 作插入语,用逗号与句子的其它部分分开,在开始阅读的时候可以不看。注意第二句话中使用了双重否定表示肯定:hardly unknown 等于pretty well-known。另外注意 so…that 结构的用法:太……以至于。另外 observation 这里的意思是因观察而得出的意见。另外 it deserves comment 中的 it 指代前面的 observation。
  
  2、Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn exce to the nearest cabin or settlement.

  [参考译文] 一个人独自旅行的时候,如果饿了,受伤了或生病了,除了最近的小屋或者村落就无处可以投靠了。
  
  [结构剖析] 这是一个简单句。traveling alone 是现在分词作定语修饰前面的 someone, if hungry, injured, or ill… 实际上是简略的 if 引导的状语从句,相当于 if (he is) hungry, injured, or ill,这里作插入成分。另外 have sth.+动词不定式 这一结构中的动词不定式通常是相当于定语部分,修饰前面的 sth.,这里就是:没有可以投靠(to turn to/动词不定式)的地方(nowhere/sth.)。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 turn to 这里的引申含义是投靠、求助于、求教于的意思。
  
  3、It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers.

  [参考译文] 对于旅行者来说,这不是一个可以有多个选择的问题,对于村落里的定居者来说,这也不仅仅是一个发善心的冲动行为。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干 It was not a matter of choice…or merely a charitable impulse…是主语+系动词+表语结构。表语由并列的两部分组成,由 or 来连接。
  
  [阅读重点] on the part of 相当于前面的 for,意思是在……方面、对……而言。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. courteous 有礼貌的

  [大纲词汇] courtesy n.谦恭有礼,有礼貌的举止(或言词)

  [衍生词汇] courteous a.谦恭有礼的,殷勤的

  [经典例句] His boss is genuinely courteous to his subordinates.
  
  2. to be fair 公平地说

  [经典例句] To be fair,his success owes much to his wife's help.
  
  3. exception 特例

  [大纲词汇] exception n.例外,除外 with the exception of 除……之外

  [经典例句] His brothers are all very tall,but he is an exception.
  
  4. small-minded 心胸狭窄的

  [扩充词汇] small-minded a.心胸狭隘的,眼界小的;固执己见的

  [联想记忆] far-sighted a.有远见的 clear-headed a.头脑清楚的
  
  5. ill-mannered 无礼的

  [扩充词汇] ill-mannered a.无礼的,举止粗鲁的
  
  6. be hardly known 几乎无人知道

  [经典例句] The truth of the incident was hardly know to anyone.
  
  7. break 中止

  [大纲词汇] break n.打断,中止;中间休息

  [经典例句] We have a study break of four days every semester.
  
  8. otherwise 不然

  [大纲词汇] otherwise ad.另样地,用别的方法;在其他方面;conj.要不然,否则

  [经典例句] He reminded me what I should have otherwise forgotten.
  
  9. existence 生活

  [大纲词汇] existence n.存在,实在;生存,生活(方式)

  [经典例句] They are working for a better existence.
  
  10. live distant from 住得离…很远

  [经典例句] He lives distant from his other relatives.
  
  11. diversion 消遣

  [大纲词汇] diversion n.转向,转移

  [扩充词义] diversion n.消遣,娱乐

  [经典例句] Big cities have a lot of diversions.
  
  12. harsh 严酷的

  [扩充词汇] harsh a.粗糙的,难听的,严厉的,严酷的 harshness n.粗糙,严酷,严厉

  [经典例句] Their adaptiveness came from coping with harsh conditions.
  
  13. the frontier(美国)靠近未开发地区的已开发地区

  [大纲词汇] frontier n.国境,边境;尖端,新领域
  
  14. hospitality 好客

  [大纲词汇] hospitality n.好客,殷勤,款待  

  [衍生词汇] hospitable a.好客的,殷勤的

  [经典例句] We were deeply moved by the hospitality of the farmers.
  
  15. settlement 定居点

  [大纲词汇] settlement n.解决,决定,调停;居留区,住宅区

  [经典例句] Israelis and Palestinians have serious disputes over Israeli new settlements.
  
  16. injured 受伤的

  [大纲词汇] injure v.损害,伤害,损伤

  [衍生词汇] injured a.受损害的,受伤的

  [经典例句] He found his injured finger caused a lot of trouble.
  
  17. charitable 乐善好施的

  [大纲词汇] charity n.慈善(团体),仁慈,施舍

  [衍生词汇] charitable a.慈悲的,仁爱的,慷慨施舍的

  [经典例句] He always takes part in charitable activities.
  
  18. impulse 冲动

  [大纲词汇] impulse v.推动; n.推动;冲动,刺激

  [经典例句] She tried to repress the impulse to dial his number.
  
  19. on the part of 就…而言;在…一边

  [经典例句] He expressed appreciation on the part of his classmates.
  
  20. take in 收留

  [大纲词汇] take in 接受,吸收;了解,理解;欺骗

  [经典例句] Andy took in a stray dog.
  
  21. take care of 照料

  [大纲词汇] take care of 照料,照顾;承担,处理,负责

  [经典例句] He asked his girl friend to take care of his dog while he went away for business.
  
  22. specialize in 专门从事

  [经典例句] The company specialize in car manufacture.
  
  23. weary 疲倦的

  [大纲词汇] weary a.疲倦的;令人厌烦的;v.使疲倦,使厌倦

  [经典例句] The pilot was extremely weary with the long time flying.
  
  24. travel through 经过

  [经典例句] I was travelling through when I saw the accident.
  
  25. amazing 令人惊讶的

  [大纲词汇] amaze v.使惊奇,使惊愕,使惊叹 amazing a.令人惊讶的

  [经典例句] The acrobatic show was amazing to all of us.
  
  26. superficial 表面的

  [大纲词汇] superficial a.表面的,肤浅的,浅薄的

  [经典例句] We were not satisfied with the superficial explanation of the incident.
  
  27. artificial 矫揉造作的

  [大纲词汇] artificial a.人工的,人造的;认为的,矫揉造作的

  [经典例句] She was wearing an artificial smile when appearing at the door.
  
  28. the result of ……的结果

  [大纲词汇] result n.结果,成果,成绩v.(in)导致,结果是;(from)起因于,因…而造成 as a result 结果,因此 as a result of 由于……的结果

  [经典例句] We regard our failure as the result of his carelessness.
  
  29. a set of 一套

  [经典例句] We expect that a set of rules and regulations will be drawn up.
  
  30. convention 习俗

  [大纲词汇] convention n.大会,会议;惯例,常规,习俗;公约,协定

  [经典例句] Convention now permits women to wear more colorful clothing.
  
  31. underlie 潜存于…之下

  [大纲词汇] underlying a.含蓄的,潜在的;在下面的

  [衍生词汇] underlie v.引起,潜存于…之下

  [经典例句] Many facts underlay my decision.
  
  32. interrelationship 互相之间的关系

  [构词方法] inter-前缀,表示互相,在…之间

  [联想记忆] interact v.互相作用 interdependent a.互相依赖的
  
  33. draw conclusion 下结论

  [经典例句] He drew the final conclusion through careful analysis.
  
  34. distinguish 分辨

  [大纲词汇] distinguish v.(from)区分,辨别;辨认出;使杰出

  [经典例句] It is very hard to distinguish the two colors.
  
  35. keep up 保持

  [大纲词汇] keep up 保持,维持;继续进行,坚持

  [经典例句] The lady always keep up her genuine warmth to people.
  
  全文翻译
  
  去美国访问的人经常带回报告说,大多数美国人对他们友善、好客、乐于助人。公正的说,人们对加拿大人也有这样的评论,因而,应当认为这是北美普遍的现象。当然也有例外。在美国,心胸狭隘的官员,举止粗鲁的招待和毫无礼貌的出租车司机也并非罕见。尽管有不如意的地方,但因为人们常常得出美国人好客的观察意见,因而也就值得议论一番了。
  
  过去很长一段时间,在美国很多地方,旅行者的到来因暂时打破原本的单调生活而受人欢迎。无聊、孤独是居住相对遥远的家庭的普遍问题。陌生人和旅行者很受欢迎,他们带来了娱乐消遣,还带来了外面世界的消息。
  
  开拓者的严酷生活现实也促成了这一好客的传统。单独旅行时,如果挨饿、受伤或生病,通常只能向最近的小屋或村落求助。对旅行者来说,这不是一个选择的问题;而对当地居民来说,这也并非是行善的一时冲动。它反映了日常生活的严酷:如果你不收留他,那他便无处求助了。请记住,有一天你也可能处于相同的境遇。
  
  如今,有了很多的慈善组织专门帮助疲惫的旅行者。不过,热情接待陌生人的传统在美国仍然很盛行,尤其是在远离旅游热线的小城镇。我只是路过,和这个美国人聊了聊。很快,他就请我到他家吃饭-这真令人惊奇。来美国的旅客谈论此类事件很普遍,但并非总能得到正确理解。很多美国人不经意表现的友好不应被看做是表面或虚假的应酬,而应该看成是文化传统的历史发展结果。
  
  同任何发达国家一样,一系列复杂的文化特征,信念和习俗构成了美国所有社会交往的基础。当然,会讲一种语言并不意味着就理解该语言的社会和文化模式。不能正确诠释文化含义的旅行者往往得出错误的结论。例如,美国人所说的朋友一词,其文化含义可能与旅行者语言和文化中的朋友大相径庭。要想正确区分礼貌是出于文化习俗还是个人兴趣,单凭一次公共汽车上的偶遇是不够的。不过,友好是很多美国人推崇的美德,同时希望邻居和陌生人也能如此。

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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(七)

 A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.
  
  For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.
  
  The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn't take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.
  
  Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner-amazing. Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
  
  As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to translate cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word friend, the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor's language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
  
  55. In the eyes of visitors from the outside world, ________.
  
  (A)rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US
  
  (B)small-minded officials deserve a serious comment
  
  (C)Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors
  
  (D)most Americans are ready to offer help
  
  56. It could be inferred from the last paragraph that ________.
  
  (A)culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship
  
  (B)courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated
  
  (C)various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends
  
  (D)social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions
  
  57. Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers ________.
  
  (A)to improve their hard life
  
  (B)in view of their long-distance travel
  
  (C)to add some flavor to their own daily life
  
  (D)out of a charitable impulse
  
  58. The tradition of hospitality to strangers ________.
  
  (A)tends to be superficial and artificial
  
  (B)is generally well kept up in the United States
  
  (C)is always understood properly
  
  (D)has something to do with the busy tourist trails


  答案及试题解析
  
  55.(D)意为:大部分美国人乐于助人。
  
  文章第一句指出,去过美国的人所带回的印象总是(consistently):大多数美国人表现为友好、礼貌、乐于助人。本文从历史及文化的角度探讨了产生这一现象的原因。
  
  A 意为:粗鲁的出租车司机在美国罕见。
   
  B 意为:心胸狭窄的官员值得严肃的一提(或:应受严肃的批评)。
  
  C 意为:加拿大人不如其邻国(当主要指美国)人民友好。
  
  注意:(A)、(B)、(C)表达的观点都不是第一段中所提到的访美者的观点,第一段的第二、三、四句表达的是本文作者的观点。在作者看来,公平地讲,许多到过加拿大的人对加拿大人也有同感,因此可以说:这是一种北美现象-北美人大都友好、礼貌、乐于助人。同时,在他看来,这种情况也有例外:心胸狭隘的官员、粗鲁的侍者、无礼的出租车司机也不乏其人,但总的来看这并不构成主流。
  
  56.(A)意为:文化影响社会关系。
  
  最后一段的第一句是全段的主题,该句可译为:像其他发达国家一样,在美国,人际关系的背后是一系列复杂的文化符号、信念和习俗。换言之,美国的文化决定了美国人的行为。
  
  B 意为:礼貌的习惯与个人兴趣互相影响。最后一段第五句可译为:仅靠在公共汽车上瞬时相遇来区别礼貌是出自于文化习惯还是个人的兴趣是不够的。根据本段的主旨和全文的主旨,这句话应该理解为:判断一个人表现出的礼貌行为究竟仅产生于其个人素质还是产生于文化的熏陶,仅看其个别的、偶然的行为是不行的。换言之,如果他随时随地表现为礼让,或者,如果生活在某一区域或国家的人都表现为礼让,那末,你才能判定礼貌行为不是一种个人现象,而是一种社会文化现象。
  
  C 意为:各种美德仅表现在朋友关系中。这一点文章最后一段没提到。最后一段所举的朋友一词的例子旨在说明:在不同文化中,相同的概念未必有同一内涵或外延。
  
  D 意为:社会关系等于一系列复杂的文化习俗。根据该段第一句,二者是决定与被决定关系,并非等同关系。见上文分析。
  
  57.(C)意为;为自己的日常生活增添情趣。
  
  第二段指出,在美国历史的很长一段时期(即所谓拓荒时代),对许多地区来说,一个旅行者的到来是很受欢迎的,因为它可以对平时单调的生活起一个调节(break)作用。离群索居的家庭共同的问题是日常生活的单调与寂寞,陌生人或旅行者的到来可以使他们暂时摆脱这种生活状况,另外。他们也可以因此获得外界信息。
  
  A 意为:改善艰苦的生活。根据上文分析可见,陌生人受欢迎的原因主要是因为他们所带来的精神效应,而非物质生活效应。第三段提到,拓荒地区(frontier)的残酷现实也是形成美国人礼貌传统的原因。一个孤独的旅游者有问题自然求助于路边最近的居住点,这对旅游者来说不是一个选择问题(即:他别无选择),对就近的定居者来说,提供必要的帮助也不仅仅是出于怜悯(charitable impulse)。这反映的是日常生活的严酷现实:如果定居者不接收并帮助他,就没有别人了,另外,有一天定居者本人也可能处于同一境地。
  
  B 意为:考虑到他们所做的长途跋涉。
  
  D 意为:出于怜悯。见上文分析。
  
  58.(B)意为:在美国得以广泛的保持。
  
  第二、三段探索了形成美国人友善好客传统的原因之后,第四段指出,虽然现在有许多专门的机构帮助旅行者,但是,友善好客的旧传统在美国仍根探蒂固,这突出表现在远离旅游热线的一些小城市中。本段最后一句指出,许多美国人随意表现出的友善不应该被看作是表面或虚假的应酬,而应该看作是一种历史文化现象。另外,文章最后一段指出,友善好客是倍受美国人珍视的美德,他们同样希望邻国人和其他外国人也表现出这一美德。
  
  A 意为:经常是表面上的、虚假的。见上文分析。
  
  C 意为:总是能被正确理解。相反,第四段指出,许多外国人对美国人的一些友好表示感到不可思议(amazing),这反映了他们对美国历史文化传统的不理解。参阅第四段第三、四、五句。
  
  D 意为:与一些旅游热线有关。不对,见上文分析。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.
  
  [参考译文] 陌生人和旅游者是受欢迎的消遣的来源,他们带来外部世界的新闻。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 Strangers and travelers were…… and brought……。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 diversion 在这里的含义是解闷,取乐的事情,消遣,娱乐,而不是转移,转向的意思。
  
  2、The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
  
  [参考译文] 许多美国人的这种随意的友好态度不应该被看成是肤浅的或虚假的,而应该被作为一种历史上发展而来的文化传统的结果来解释。
  
  [结构剖析] 这个句子的主干结构是 The casual friendliness should be interpreted neither as A nor B, but as C,使用了被动语态。其中 neither…nor… 结构后用的是同样词性的成分:形容词 superficial 和 artificial。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 neither…… nor…… but 结构的使用:既不是……也不是……而是……,重点在 but 之后。as the/a result of:作为……的结果、由于……而……。
  
  3、As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships.
  
  [参考译文] 就如同在任何一个发达社会里一样,在美国,所有社会相互关系下面都隐含着一系列复杂的文化信号、假设和传统观念。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是…cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies…interrelationships。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 as 在这里是一个代词,表示这一情况,这一事实。可以参考以下的例句来理解 as 的用法:The night had turned cold, as is usual around here. 夜晚变得很冷,在这一带经常如此。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1、There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  [参考译文] 当然,例外是存在的。在美国,心胸狭窄的官员,粗鲁的侍者,和没有礼貌的出租车司机也并不少见。然而人们常常得出这样的观察意见,这使得它值得被讨论一下。
  
  [结构剖析] 第一个句子使用了 there be 句型,其中 of course 是插入语。第二句是主语+系动词+表语结构。第三句话中使用了 so…… that 结构:其中 made so frequently 是过去分词作定语,修饰前面的 observation.
  
  [阅读重点] 第一句中的 of course 作插入语,用逗号与句子的其它部分分开,在开始阅读的时候可以不看。注意第二句话中使用了双重否定表示肯定:hardly unknown 等于pretty well-known。另外注意 so…… that 结构的用法:太……以至于。另外 observation这里的意思是因观察而得出的意见。另外 it deserves comment 中的 it 指代前面的observation。
  
  2、Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhereto turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement.

  [参考译文] 一个人独自旅行的时候,如果饿了、受伤了或生病了,除了最近的小屋或者村落就无处可以投靠了。
  
  [结构剖析] 这是一个简单句。traveling alone 是现在分词作定语,修饰前面的someone,if hungry, injured, or ill…实际上是简略的 if 引导的状语从句,相当于 if (he is) hungry, injured, or ill…,这里作插入成分。另外 have sth.+动词不定式 这一结构中的动词不定式通常是相当于定语部分,修饰前面的 sth,这里就是:没有可以投靠(to turn to/动词不定式)的地方(nowhere/sth.)。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 turn to 这里的引申含义是投靠、求助于、求教于的意思。
  
  3、It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers.

  [参考译文] 对于旅行者来说,这不是一个可以有多个选择的问题,对于村落里的定居者来说,这也不仅仅是一个发善心的冲动行为。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 It was not a matter of choice…… or merely a charitable impulse…,是主语+系动词+表语的结构。表语由并列的两部分组成,由 or 来连接。
  
  [阅读重点] on the part of 相当于前面的 for,意思是在……方面,对……而言。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. courteous 有礼貌的

  [大纲词汇] courtesy n.谦恭有礼,有礼貌的举止(或言词)

  [衍生词汇] courteous a.谦恭有礼的,殷勤的

  [经典例句] His boss is genuinely courteous to his subordinates.
  
  2. to be fair 公平地说

  [经典例句] To be fair,his success owes much to his wife's help.
  
  3. exception 特例

  [大纲词汇] exception n.例外,除外 with the exception of 除……之外

  [经典例句] His brothers are all very tall, but he is an exception.
  
  4. small-minded 心胸狭窄的

  [扩充词汇] small-minded a. 心胸狭隘的,眼界小的;固执己见的

  [联想记忆] far-sighted a.有远见的 clear-headed a.头脑清楚的
  
  5. ill-mannered 无礼的

  [扩充词汇] ill-mannered a.无礼的,举止粗鲁的
  
  6. be hardly known 几乎无人知道

  [经典例句] The truth of the incident was hardly know to anyone.
  
  7. break 中止

  [大纲词汇] break n.打断,中止;中间休息

  [经典例句] We have a study break of four days every semester.
  
  8. otherwise 不然

  [大纲词汇] otherwise ad.另样地,用别的方法;在其他方面;conj.要不然,否则

  [经典例句] He reminded me what I should have otherwise forgotten.
  
  9. existence 生活

  [大纲词汇] existence n.存在,实在;生存,生活(方式)

  [经典例句] They are working for a better existence.
  
  10. live distant from 住得离…很远

  [经典例句] He lives distant from his other relatives.
  
  11. diversion 消遣

  [大纲词汇] diversion n.转向,转移

  [扩充词义] diversion n.消遣,娱乐

  [经典例句] Big cities have a lot of diversions.
  
  12. harsh 严酷的

  [扩充词汇] harsh a.粗糙的,难听的,严厉的,严酷的 harshness n.粗糙,严酷,严厉

  [经典例句] Their adaptiveness came from coping with harsh conditions.
  
  13. the frontier(美国)靠近未开发地区的已开发地区

  [大纲词汇] frontier n.国境,边境;尖端,新领域
  
  14. hospitality 好客

  [大纲词汇] hospitality n. 好客,殷勤,款待

  [衍生词汇] hospitable a. 好客的,殷勤的

  [经典例句]We were deeply moved by the hospitality of the farmers.
  
  15. settlement 定居点

  [大纲词汇] settlement n.解决,决定,调停;居留区,住宅区

  [经典例句] Israelis and Palestinians have serious disputes over Israeli new settlements.
  
  16. injured 受伤的

  [大纲词汇] injure v.损害,伤害,损伤

  [衍生词汇] injured a.受损害的,受伤的

  [经典例句] He found his injured finger caused a lot of trouble.
  
  17. charitable 乐善好施的

  [大纲词汇] charity n. 慈善(团体),仁慈,施舍

  [衍生词汇] charitable a.慈悲的,仁爱的,慷慨施舍的

  [经典例句] He always takes part in charitable activities.
  
  18. impulse 冲动

  [大纲词汇] impulse v. 推动;n.推动;冲动,刺激

  [经典例句] She tried to repress the impulse to dial his number.
  
  19. on the part of 就…而言;在…一边

  [经典例句] He expressed appreciation on the part of his classmates.
  
  20. take in 收留

  [大纲词汇] take in 接受,吸收;了解,理解;欺骗

  [经典例句] Andy took in a stray dog.
  
  21. take care of 照料

  [大纲词汇] take care of照料,照顾;承担,处理,负责

  [经典例句] He asked his girl friend to take care of his dog while he went away for business.
  
  22. specialize in 专门从事

  [经典例句] The company specialize in car manufacture.
  
  23. weary 疲倦的

  [大纲词汇] weary a.疲倦的;令人厌烦的;v.使疲倦,使厌倦

  [经典例句] The pilot was extremely weary with the long time flying.
  
  24. travel through 经过

  [经典例句] I was travelling through when I saw the accident.
  
  25. amazing 令人惊讶的

  [大纲词汇] amaze v.使惊奇,使惊愕,使惊叹 amazing a.令人惊讶的

  [经典例句] The acrobatic show was amazing to all of us.
  
  26. superficial 表面的

  [大纲词汇] superficial a.表面的,肤浅的,浅薄的

  [经典例句] We were not satisfied with the superficial explanation of the incident.
  
  27. artificial 矫揉造作的

  [大纲词汇] artificial a.人工的,人造的;认为的,矫揉造作的

  [经典例句] She was wearing an artificial smile when appearing at the door.
  
  28. the result of… 的结果

  [大纲词汇] result n.结果,成果,成绩 v.(in)导致,结果是;(from)起因于,因…而造成 as a result 结果,因此 as a result of 由于…的结果

  [经典例句] We regard our failure as the result of his carelessness.
  
  29. a set of 一套

  [经典例句] We expect that a set of rules and regulations will be drawn up.
  
  30. convention 习俗

  [大纲词汇] convention n.大会,会议;惯例,常规,习俗;公约,协定

  [经典例句] convention now permits women to wear more colorful clothing.
  
  31. underlie 潜存于…之下

  [大纲词汇] underlying a.含蓄的,潜在的;在下面的

  [衍生词汇] underlie v.引起,潜存于…之下

  [经典例句] Many facts underlay my decision.
  
  32. interrelationship 互相之间的关系

  [构词方法] inter-前缀,表示互相,在…之间

  [联想记忆] interact v.互相作用 interdependent a.互相依赖的
  
  33. draw conclusion 下结论

  [经典例句] He drew the final conclusion through careful analysis.
  
  34. distinguish 分辨

  [大纲词汇] distinguish v.(from)区分,辨别;辨认出;使杰出

  [经典例句] It is very hard to distinguish the two colors.
  
  35. keep up 保持

  [大纲词汇] keep up 保持,维持;继续进行,坚持

  [经典例句] The lady always keep up her genuine warmth to people.
  
  全文翻译
  
  去美国访问的人经常带回报告说,大多数美国人对他们友善、好客、乐于助人。公正的说,人们对加拿大人也有这样的评论,因而,应当认为这是北美普遍的现象。当然也有例外。在美国,心胸狭隘的官员,举止粗鲁的招待和毫无礼貌的出租车司机也并非罕见。尽管有不如意的地方,但因为人们常常得出美国人好客的观察意见,因而也就值得议论一番了。
  
  过去很长一段时间,在美国很多地方,旅行者的到来因暂时打破原本的单调生活而受人欢迎。无聊、孤独是居住相对遥远的家庭的普遍问题。陌生人和旅行者很受欢迎,他们带来了娱乐消遣,还带来了外面世界的消息。
  
  开拓者的严酷生活现实也促成了这一好客的传统。单独旅行时,如果挨饿、受伤或生病,通常只能向最近的小屋或村落求助。对旅行者来说,这不是一个选择的问题;而对当地居民来说,这也并非是行善的一时冲动。它反映了日常生活的严酷:如果你不收留他,那他便无处求助了。请记住,有一天你也可能处于相同的境遇。
  
  如今,有了很多的慈善组织专门帮助疲惫的旅行者。不过,热情接待陌生人的传统在美国仍然很盛行,尤其是在远离旅游热线的小城镇。我只是路过,和这个美国人聊了聊。很快,他就请我到他家吃饭-这真令人惊奇。来美国的旅客谈论此类事件很普遍,但并非总能得到正确理解。很多美国人不经意表现的友好不应被看做是表面或虚假的应酬,而应该看成是文化传统的历史发展结果。
  
  同任何发达国家一样,一系列复杂的文化特征,信念和习俗构成了美国所有社会交往的基础。当然,会讲一种语言并不意味着就理解该语言的社会和文化模式。不能正确诠释文化含义的旅行者往往得出错误的结论。例如,美国人所说的朋友一词,其文化含义可能与旅行者语言和文化中的朋友大相径庭。要想正确区分礼貌是出于文化习俗还是个人兴趣,单凭一次公共汽车上的偶遇是不够的。不过,友好是很多美国人推崇的美德,同时希望邻居和陌生人也能如此。

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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(八)

Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase substance abuse is often used instead of drug abuse to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.
  
  We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
  
  Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning mind-manifestation) because they seemed to radically alter one‘s state of consciousness.
  
  59. Substances abuse (line 5, paragraph 1) is preferable to drug abuse in that ________.
  
  (A) substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used
  
  (B) drug abuse is only related to a limited number of drugtakers
  
  (C) alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine
  
  (D) many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous
  
  60. The word pervasive (line 1, paragraph 2) might mean ________.
  
  (A) widespread  (B) overwhelming  (C) piercing  (D) fashionable
  
  61. Physical dependence on certain substances results from ________.
  
  (A) uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time
  
  (B) exclusive use of them for social purposes
  
  (C) quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases
  
  (D) careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms
  
  62. From the last paragraph we can infer that ________.
  
  (A) stimulants function positively on the mind
  
  (B) hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health
  
  (C) depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances
  
  (D) the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  59.(D)意为:除海洛因或可卡因外,许多其他物质也是有害的。
  
  第一段最后一句指出,许多医生(physician)和心理学家常使用物质滥用而不是药物滥用这一概念,他们想以此说明:滥用像烟酒这样的物质与滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。
  
  A 意为:如果非法使用,物质可能改变我们身体或大脑的功能。第一段第一句对药物这一概念下了一个定义:从专业角度来讲,除食品以外,任何改变我们的身体或大脑功能的物质都是药物。但是,正如第二句所指出的,许多人错误地认为药物这一概念仅指某种医药或嗜毒者用的非法化学药品。
  
  B 意为:药物滥用仅限指一少部分人的吸毒行为。
  
  C 意为:烟酒同海洛因和可卡因一样致命。这里,fatal(致命的)一词太夸张了,与原文中所说的有害(harmfully)相去甚远。
  
  60.(A)该词意为:普通的,广泛的。
  
  事实上,由第二段第一句的冒号后部分所表达的内容,我们可以推断出该词的意思。该句可译为:在我们生活的社会里,医用或社交用物质(药物)广泛存在,如:用阿斯匹林制止头痛,用酒交际,早晨用咖啡振作一下精神,抽支烟定定神(或:松弛一下)。
  
  B 意为:压倒一切的,占主流的。
  
  C 意为:尖锐的,尖的。
  
  D 意为:时髦的,流行的。
  
  61.(A)意为:长时间无节制地嗜用它们。
  
  根据第二段第四、五句,频繁使用(repeated use)某种物质(药物)会使身体对之上瘾或形成依赖。依赖起先表现为耐药量(tolerance)的增加:要达到满足,需要的剂量越来越多;停止服用后,一些不舒服的反应就会出现。可见,用药量和用药时间是造成药物依赖的两个重要因素。
  
  B 意为:仅将它们用于社交目的。文章第二段第一句确实提到了像酒这样的物质可以用于社交目的,但这不等于说只有用于社交目的的物质才可以使人上瘾。
  
  C 意为:将它们大量地用来治病。量大仅是可能产生药物依赖的原因之一,而频繁使用也是形成药物依赖的重要条件。
  
  D 意为:粗心使用它们而产生不良症状。
  
  62.(B)意为:幻觉剂本身就危害健康。
  
  根据第三段第四、五句,幻觉剂主要影响人的感知觉,以各种方式(包括产生幻觉)将它扭曲、改变。它们被称作引起幻觉的药物,因为它们似乎从根本上改变了人的意识状态。
  
  A 意为:兴奋剂对心智有积极影响。第三段前三句指出,影响中枢神经系统、改变感知觉和行为的药物属于对神经起显著作用的(psychoactive)物质,它们通常分为兴奋剂、抑制剂或幻觉剂。兴奋剂具有开始加快或激活中枢神经的作用,而抑制剂则具有减缓作用。但是,无论是哪种作用,其影响都是有害的。参阅第一段最后一句。
  
  C 意为:抑制剂是对神经起显著作用的物质中最坏的一种。第三段提到了三钟影响人的意识与行为的物质(见上文),但并未指出哪种效果最坏。
  
  D 意为:三种对神经起显著作用的物质经常被一起使用。这一点第三段也未提到。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.
  
  [参考译文] 我们生活在一种药品(毒品)的医学用途和社会用途都很广泛的社会里:一片用来止头疼的阿司匹林,一些用来社交的酒,早上自己提提神所喝的咖啡,一支用来定神的香烟。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干就是 We live in a society…,后面 which 引导定语从句 in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive,修饰 society。冒号后面的部分是并列关系的名词词组,用来举例说明前面提出的观点,开始时可以略去不看。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意冒号后面列举的前三个名词词组中的动词不定式都相当于定语成分,修饰前面的中心名词,表示其功效。
  
  2. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
  
  [参考译文] 对药品的依赖性首先表现为不断增长的耐药量,要产生想得到的效果所需要的药品剂量越来越大,然后表现为当停药后,令人不快的停药症状的出现。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干结构是 Dependence is marked first by…and then by…;逗号隔开的成分 with+n.+过去分词:with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect 作状语,用来进一步解释药物依赖的第一种表现。when the substance is discontinued 是表示时间的状语从句。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 and 连接两个 by 开始的介词词组是并列关系,这样就能抓住句子的主干了。另外注意名词在这里的特殊意义:dependence 指对药物的依赖,withdrawal 的意思是停止用药。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1. The phrase substance abuse is often used instead of drug abuse to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.

  [参考译文] 药品滥用这个词经常被用来代替毒品滥用,其目的是为了表明酒精和烟草这样的物质是可能像海洛因和可卡因那样被误用的。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干是句子的前半部分 The phrase substance abuse is often used…to make clear…;to make clear that…是动词不定式作状语,表示目的。that 后面接的是宾语从句作动词 make clear 的宾语。
  
  [阅读重点] 注意 make+sth.+adj.:make sth. clear,这里因为 sth. 是一个 that 引导的从句,所以放在了形容词 clear 的后面。另外注意 as…as 的用法。
  
  2、Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens.

  [参考译文] 精神刺激性药品通常按照他们是否是兴奋剂,镇静剂或致幻剂来划分。
  
  [结构剖析] 这是一个简单句。句子的主干部分是 Psychoactive substances are…grouped according to…,使用了被动语态。其中 whether 引导宾语从句 whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens 作介词 according to 的宾语。
  
  [阅读重点] group 这里用作动词,是分类的意思。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. alter 改变

  [大纲词汇] alter v. 改变,变更 alteration n. 改变,变更

  [经典例句] The outstanding performance of the troupe altered their attitude.
  
  2. mental functioning 心理功能
  
  3. drug addict 吸毒者

  [扩充词汇] addict n. 入迷的人,上瘾的人; v. 使沉溺,使人迷,使上瘾
  
  4. alcohol 酒精

  [大纲词汇] alcohol n. 酒精,乙醇;含酒精的饮料

  [衍生词汇] alcoholic n.酒鬼;a.酒精的

  [经典例句] His mother told him to keep off alcohol.
  
  5. illegal 非法的

  [大纲词汇] illegal a.不合法的,非法的

  [经典例句] The state forbids illegal possession of firearms.
  
  6. neutral 中性的

  [大纲词汇] neutral a.中立的;中性的,中和的

  [经典例句] He tried to keep neutral in the conflicts between his friends.
  
  7. psychologist 心理学家

  [大纲词汇] psychology n. 心理学

  [衍生词汇] psychologist n.心理学家
  
  8. phrase 词

  [大纲词汇] phrase n.短语,词语,习语

  [经典例句] This phrase was used wrongly in the sentence.
  
  9. abuse 滥用

  [大纲词汇] abuse v./n.滥用;虐待;漫骂

  [经典例句] Drug abuse has become a serious social problem nowadays.
  
  10. instead of 代替

  [大纲词汇] instead ad.代替,顶替 instead of 代替,而不是;不是…(而是)

  [经典例句] Her brought two assistants with her instead of one.
  
  11. misuse 滥用

  [扩充词汇] misuse v. 错用,误用,滥用

  [构词方法] mis-后缀,表示不当,错,误

  [联想记忆] misunderstand v.误解 miscalculate v.误算

  [经典例句] You should not misuse his kindness and take his advantage.
  
  12. heroin 海洛因

  [大纲词汇] heroin n.海洛因
  
  13. cocaine 可卡因
  
  14. pervasive 普遍的

  [扩充词汇] pervasive a.到处弥漫的;普遍的,流行的

  [经典例句] Pollution is one of the most pervasive problems today.
  
  15. aspirin 阿斯匹林
  
  16. sociable 善于交际的

  [扩充词汇] sociable a.好交际的,合群的;社交的

  [经典例句] Although she is nice to everyone, she is not a sociable person.
  
  17. get going 开始工作

  [扩充词汇] get going 开始,开始谈话(或工作等)

  [经典例句] He suggested we get going with our work.
  
  18. constructive 有建设性的

  [大纲词汇] construct v.建设,建造,构造;创立

  [衍生词汇] constructive a.建设性的,有积极意义的

  [经典例句] The company gave constructive response to their criticism.
  
  19. first of all 首先

  [经典例句] First of all, your reaction should be justified.
  
  20. in excess 过量

  [大纲词汇] excess a.过量的,额外的;n.过量,过剩 in excess of 超过

  [经典例句] The materials you keep in excess will cost you too much money.
  
  21. negative effects 负面影响

  [大纲词汇] negative a.否定的,消极的,反面的,负的,阴性的;n.负数;(摄影)底片
  
  22. perceptual 感觉的

  [扩充词汇] perceptual a. 感知的,感觉的;感性的 perceptual response 知觉反应perceptual knowledge 感性知识
  
  23. physical addiction 身体上瘾

  [扩充词汇] addiction n.人迷,嗜好;瘾 heroin addiction海洛因瘾
  
  24. withdrawal symptoms 脱瘾的不舒服症状

  [大纲词汇] withdraw v.收回,撤消;缩回,退出;提取(钱)symptom n. 症状,征候,征兆

  [衍生词汇] withdrawal n.收回,取回,撤回;戒毒(脱瘾)的过程
  
  25. discontinue 停止

  [扩充词汇] discontinue v.停止,中断,终止

  [经典例句] We have to discontinue the projects because of a lack of fund.
  
  26. nervous system 神经系统

  [大纲词汇] nerve n.神经;勇气,胆量 nervous a.神经的;神经过敏的,紧张不安的
  
  27. perception 感知

  [大纲词汇] perceive v.察觉,感知;理解,领悟

  [衍生词汇] perception n.察觉,感觉,感知;认识,看法

  [经典例句] His perception of the change came in a flash.
  
  28. peychoactive 作用于精神的,影响(或改变)心理状态的

  [构词方法] psycho-前缀,表示精神:心理

  [联想记忆] psychoanalysis n. 精神分析 psychobiology n.精神生物学
  
  29. stimulant 兴奋剂

  [扩充词汇] stimulant n.引起兴奋的食品(或饮料等);兴奋剂;刺激物,影响力

  [经典例句] Coffee and tea are stimulants.
  
  30. depressant 镇静剂

  [大纲词汇] depress v.压抑,降低;使沮丧,压下

  [衍生词汇] depressant n.镇静剂
  
  31. hallucinogen 幻觉剂
  
  32. speed up 使加速

  [大纲词汇] speed up 使加速

  [经典例句] You have to speed up your rate of work.
  
  33. activate 启动

  [大纲词汇] activate v.使活动,启动

  [经典例句] He ordered the workers to activate the engine.
  
  34. slow down 降低(速度)

  [大纲词汇] slow down(使)放慢,减速

  [经典例句] She asked her son to slow down the car because she felt dizzy.
  
  35. primary effect 最初的作用
  
  36. hallucination 幻觉

  [扩充词汇] hallucination n.幻觉;妄想

  [经典例句] He was undergoing some perceptive hallucination.
  
  37. psychedelic 迷幻药的

  [扩充词汇] psychedelic a.迷幻药的;引起幻觉的 a psychedelic indulgence 迷幻沉洒psychedelic art 迷幻艺
  
  35. mind manifesting 显示内心想法的

  [大纲词汇] manifest v.表明,证明,显示;a.明白的,明了的

  [联想记忆] mind-altering a.麻痹神经的
  
  39. radically 极度地

  [大纲词汇] radical a. 基本的,重要的;激进的,极端的;根本的

  [经典例句] Attitudes towards education will have to change radically.
  
  40. fatal 致命的

  [大纲词汇] fatal a. 致命的,毁灭性的

  [经典例句] He collapsed at the fatal blow on his head.
  
  41. piercing 刺穿的

  [大纲词汇] pierce v刺破,刺穿

  [经典例句] They pursued their way in the piercing coldness.
  
  全文翻译
  
  从专业角度说,除食品外,任何能改变我们生理和心理机能的物质都是药物。很多人错误地认为药物这个词仅仅指某些药品或是吸毒者服用的违禁化学品。他们没有意识到诸如酒精、烟草这些我们熟悉的物质也是药物。这也是现在许多内科医生和心理学家使用物质这个更加中性的词的原因。他们常用物质滥用而不用药物滥用来清楚表明滥用酒精、烟草这样的物质如同滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。
  
  我们生活在一个物质(药物)在医疗和社交方面的使用都很广泛的社会里:用来缓解头痛的阿斯匹林,用来应酬的酒,早晨用来提神的咖啡,还有定神用的香烟。使用这些物质得到了社会认可,且显然具有积极的作用,但什么时候就变成滥用了呢?首先,大多数物质的过量使用都会产生负面影响,如中毒或严重的感知错乱。反复使用一种物质可以导致成瘾或对该物质的依赖。依赖的最初表现是不断增长的耐药量,要产生预期的效果需要的药剂量越来越大,而一旦中断使用就会出现难受的停药症状。
  
  影响中枢神经系统、改变感知觉和行为的药物(物质)属于对神经起显著作用的物质,它们通常分为兴奋剂、镇静剂和幻觉剂。兴奋剂主要起到加速或激活中枢神经系统的作用,而镇静剂则相反:减缓它的活动。幻觉剂主要影响人的感知,通过多种方式对感知加以扭曲或改变,其中包括产生幻觉。这些物质常被认为能引起幻觉(psychedelic一词源于希腊语,意为心灵显现),因为它们似乎能改变人的意识状态。

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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(九)

No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of a nation. Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers? Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well? At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. It’s a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.
  
  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the company’s mountainous debt, which will increase to $ 17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.
  
  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company’s rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-T’s violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We won’t retreat in the face of any threats.
  
  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard-line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month’s stockholders’meeting. Levin asserted that music is not the cause of society’s ills and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the balanced struggle between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.The 15-member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited, says Luce. I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this.
  
  63. Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for ________.
  
  (A)its raising of the corporate stock price
  
  (B)its self-examination of soul
  
  (C)its neglect of social responsibility
  
  (D)its emphasis on creative freedom
  
  64. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
  
  (A)Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.
  
  (B)Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.
  
  (C)Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.
  
  (D)Steve Ross is no longer alive.
  
  65. In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman ________.
  
  (A)stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression
  
  (B)softened his tone and adopted some new policy
  
  (C)changed his attitude and yielded to objection
  
  (D)received more support from the 15-member board
  
  66. The best title for this passage could be ________.
  
  (A)A Company under Fire
  
  (B)A Debate on Moral Decline
  
  (C)A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture
  
  (D)A Form of Creative Freedom
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  63.(C)意为:它对社会责任的忽视。
  
  第一段指出,没有哪个公司喜欢别人说它导致了全国道德败坏,多尔参议员所指责时代华纳公司的正是这一点。他说:难道这就是你们的经营目标吗,你们出卖了自己的灵魂,难道你们也想毁了国家、危及我们的孩子吗?另从第三、四段来看,这里多尔所指责的正是该公司用它的音乐作品带来的社会影响,多尔认为这些音乐作品对社会和青少年有不良影响。
  
  A 意为:它将公司股价提高。从多尔所说的话来看,他关心的不是该公司的经济状况。
  
  B 意为:它对灵魂的自我检验。第一段第三句指出,对时代沃纳公司来说,多尔所质疑的问题只不过是公司自创立以来一直进行的自我反省的最新表述,在公司发展的不同阶段,这一自我反省涉及(社会)责任、创作自由、公司利润(bottom line)。换言之,在公司的发展过程中,社会责任、创作自由、公司能否赚钱这三者之间的矛盾一直困扰着公司。根据公司董事长列文的话(见第三段),公司把创作自由放在了发展的首位。这造成了它对作品的社会影响的忽视,所以,后来列文改变态度以后,承认应该在创作自由和社会责任上寻找一个平衡点(见第四段)。可见,多尔参议员所指责的正是公司的所作所为带来的不良社会影响,这样他就击中了要害。
  
  D 意为:它对创作自由的强调。见上文分析。
  
  64.(D)回答这一问题主要涉及对第二段第一句中 late 的理解。
  
  除其他意思外,该词有前,已故的等意思。一般来讲,该词加在人名或称呼前时译作已故的、如:the late Mr. Green 已故格林先生,her late husband 她的前夫(已故),若加在头衔前,则要据情况而译,如:the late president 前总统(也可能已故,也可能仅指刚刚卸职)。第二段第一句可译为:处于争议中心的是董事长杰拉德?列文,他在 1992年前董事长史蒂夫?罗斯去世后继任,今年 56 岁。
  
  A 意为:路斯是时代沃纳公司的发言人。在最后一段第二句,路斯仅被称作 insider(内部人士,知情人士),他说:我们有些人多年来一直知道(宪法)第一修正案中所规定的自由并非是无限制的自由,我想可能公司的某些人最近才意识到这一点。他的话说明了公司领导内部对处理创作自由和社会影响这一对矛盾上的不同看法、也暗含着对公司一贯政策(过于强调创作自由)的批评。可见,他并非公司指派的发言人,而仅代表自己。
  
  B 意为:列文倾向于妥协。根据第三段中列文所说的话,他是一个持强硬立场的人。他说:检验任何民主社会的标准不是看它如何严厉地控制(思想的)表达,而是看它是否给人以最大限度的思想和表达思想的自由。我们不会屈服于任何威胁。但是,在这次的争议中,虽然列文也在为公司发行的音乐作品争辩,但他也做出了某些程度的让步(参阅第四段第一句)。由此可见,列文并非是个易于妥协的人。
  
  C 意为:在这场争议中。时代沃纳公司团结一致。不对,例如上文所提到的路斯的观点。
  
  65.(B)意为:态度有所缓和,采取了某种新政策。
  
  第四段指出,列文对上周的争议拒绝评价,但有迹象表明他正在放弃自己的强硬立场-至少在某种程度上可以这样说。在上月讨论摇滚乐歌词的董事会上,列文强调音乐并不引起社会丑恶现象,他甚至举了他儿子的例子。但是,他同时也谈到了创作自由与社会责任保持平衡的问题,他表示,公司将为音乐的发行和标识(labeling 指:标识作品或产品的应用对象,如:是否适应于青少年使用等)制定标准。可见,列文在做出妥协姿态的同时,也采取了实际的行动。
  
  A 意为:坚持强硬立场保护思想表达自由。
  
  C 意为:改变其态度并向反对派屈服。与 B 表达的内容相比,C 表达的内容语气太强。因为,正如第四段第一句所说的,列文仅做出了某种程度的让步(to some extent)。
  
  D 意为:获得了董事会 15 位成员更多的支持。虽然董事会一直支持列文及其公司经营战略,但在这次的争议中,意见出现了分歧。参阅第 64 题题解。
  
  66.(A)意为:遭到责难的公司。
  
  从以上的分析可以看出,本文主要是评述了时代华纳公司因发行新音乐专辑而受到的责难及其反应。
  
  B 意为:一场关于道德败坏的争论。这个题目太宽泛。更何况,时代华纳公司所被指责的主要是它对社会责任的忽视,而并非它所发行的作品所带来的实际社会影响。
  
  C 意为:街头文化的合法表达(途径)。
  
  D 意为:一种表现创作自由的形式
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company’s rap music on the grounds of expression.
  
  [参考译文] 人们对说唱音乐的焦虑并没使他的日子变得好过。莱文一向以它是一种富于表现力的演唱方式这个理由来为公司的说唱音乐辩护。
  
  [结构剖析] 第一个句子是一个简单句。flap over rap 是句子的主语,is making 是谓语,使用了结构:make+n.+adj.。第二个句子也是一个简单句。

  [阅读重点] 第一句中的重点是掌握 to make life easier 这个表述方法,其它部分都是辅助这个短语的。另外,对于 flap 一词的理解也至关重要,在这里它的意思是焦虑、兴奋状态的意思。第二句中的主干是 defend somebody on the grounds of something(为某种理由或手段为某人辩护)。expression 这里的意思是 the quality of singing or playing a musical instrument with feeling,即表达方式、腔调,尤指雄辩的语调、富有表情的唱腔。注意 consistently 是一贯地,一向地的意思,不要与 constantly 混淆。
  
  2、The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be…
  
  [参考译文] 对任何一个民主社会的考验,他在《华尔街杂志》的一个专栏文章中写到,不在于它能够多有效地控制各种意见的表达,而在于这个社会是否能给予思考和表达的尽可能广泛的自由,不管有时候这种结果是多么的富有争议或令人不快……

  [结构剖析] 这里直接引语被分成两部分,一部分在主句前,另一部分放在主句之后。在这个例子里面,直接引语是主句的宾语。直接引语的主干是 The test…… lies not in…… but in……, however……,这是一个用副词 however 连接的并列复合句。
  
  [阅读重点] 阅读时可以先不看直接引语,可以在分别搞清楚主句和作为宾语从句的直接引语的意思后再把主句和直接引语放在一起理解,这样就比较容易了。另一方面,要理解 however 引导的句子的意思,在这里可以把其理解为不管、不论,在这种用法中,however 一般后面接形容词。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1、Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers? Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?

  [参考译文] 上星期参议员罗博特多尔质问时代华纳公司的高级管理人员们:难道这就是你们希望能够成就的事业?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,但是难道你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子们吗?

  [结构剖析] 这是一个有直接引语的复杂句。首先抓住核心句 Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week,其前后是直接引语。这个直接引语的前半部分是一个一般疑问句,后面由两个转折关系的句子构成,由连词 but 连接。第一个分句是一个简单句,but 后面的句子是一个一般疑问句。由情态动词 must 引导,包括由 and 这个连词连的两个并列部分,corrupt our nation 和 threaten our children as well 在后面 threaten out children as well 这部分的主语 you 被省略了。
  
  [阅读重点] 关键要理解 but 后面的一般疑问句,这里并不是表示疑问,而是反问、诘问的意思。当并列复合句的第二个子句的主语与第一个子句的主语相同时,第二个子句的主语可以省。as well 这里是 in addition、also、too 也的意思,经常用于句尾。
  
  2、It’s a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

  [参考译文] 这是一种在不同时期会涉及责任、创作自由和公司底线问题的自我反省。
  
  [结构剖析] 这是一个有定语从句的复杂句。阅读时首先注意主干为 It is a self-examination…;that 后面引导的是限定性定语从句,修饰 self-examination;定语从句的宾语是一个 of 词组,其核心是 issues;在介词 of 后面是三个并列的短语,都是用来修饰和限定 issues 的。这三个短语因为是并列的关系,所以只在最后一个短语前面使用并列连词 and。at various times 是插入语,将动词的两部分分开了。
   
  [阅读重点] 这句话的核心在于 self-examination,后面的部分都是用于修饰这个词,要正确理解其意思是自我反省、自我检讨。而 corporate bottom line 所指的是一个公司所能做出的事情或者所能容忍的新闻工作者自由发挥的最大限度。
  
  3、During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month’s stockholders’ meeting, Levin asserted that music is not the cause of society’s ills and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students.

  [参考译文] 在上个月的股东大会上关于摇滚歌词的讨论中,莱文宣称说:音乐不是社会问题的原因,他甚至还以他的儿子为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,并用说唱音乐与学生们进行沟通。
  
  [结构剖析] 句子的主干是 Levin asserted that…… that even cited……。During…… stockholder’s meeting 这一部分是表示时间的状语从句。music is not the cause of society’s ills 是直接引语,作为动词 asserted 的宾语。his son 是动词 cited 的宾语,后面的 a teacher in the Bronx, New York 是宾语 his son 的同位语,最后面的 who uses rap to communicate with students 是修饰 his son 的定语从句。
  
  [阅读重点] 这个句子比较长,但是只要抓住 … Levin asserted that… and even cite…这样的句子主干,就能明晰 Levin 的主要观点,其它部分的理解也就水到渠成了。
  
  4、I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this.

  [参考译文] 我想大概情况是这样的:与公司有关系的一些人直到最近才意识到这一点。

  [结构剖析] I think……是这句话的主干,后面的部分是这句话的宾语从句。在宾语从句当中 that 引导一个同位语从句,说明 case 的具体情况是 some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this。associated with 相当于简略的定语从句,修饰前面的 people。
  
  [阅读重点] 重点是要理解 that 引导的是同位语从句,后面的部分说明 case 的具体情况。名词 fact、dream、idea、notion、proposal 和 news 等等都常常被同位语从句所修饰。
  
  语言点详解
  
  1. contribute to促成

  [大纲词汇] contribute v.(to)贡献,捐助,捐献;投稿

  contribution n.贡献;捐献(物)

  [扩充词汇] contribute to促成,有助于

  [经典例句] Air pollution contributes to quite a number of diseases.

  2. accomplish实现

  [大纲词汇] accomplish v.完成

  [经典例句] They are ordered to accomplish to mission in 3 days.

  3. corrupt使…腐化

  [大纲词汇] corrupt v.贿赂,收买;a.腐化的,贪污的

  [衍生词汇] corruption n.腐败

  [经典例句] He was accused of having corrupted officials in the government.

  4. soul-searching良心上的自我反省

  [扩充词汇] soul-search v.深刻反省

  soul-searching n.深刻反省,自我解剖

  5. corporate公司的

  [扩充词汇] corporate a.公司的;法人的,合伙的

  [经典例句] These deeds will definitely damage the corporate image.

  6.bottom line账本底线

  7. at the core of在…的中心

  [大纲词汇] core n.果核;中心,核心

  [经典例句] The issue lies at the core of the discussion.

  8. take over接管

  [大纲词汇] take over接管,接办

  [经典例句] The company went downward since he took over.

  9. late已故的

  [大纲词汇] late a.迟的,晚的,晚期的;已故的;ad.迟地,晚地

  [经典例句] The late president was always respected by the people.

  10. on the financial front就财政方面而言

  [大纲词汇] front n.前面,正面;前线,战线,阵线a.前面的,前部的v.面对,朝向

  [经典例句] The government has made great progress in the educational front.

  11. under pressure受到压力

  [大纲词汇] pressure n.压(力);强制,压迫,压强

  [经典例句] The director was under great pressure to veto the decision.

  12. stock price股票价格

  13. mountainous山一样的

  [大纲词汇] mountainous a.多山的,山一般的

  [经典例句] The homework assigned to us is mountainous.

  14. close a deal做成一笔交易

  [大纲词汇] deal n.数量,程度;交易

  [经典例句] The deal is not close yet and it is not the time to celebrate.

  15. sell off卖掉

  [扩充词汇] sell off卖掉

  [经典例句] She sold off her house in downtown and moved to the suburb.

  16. restruture重组

  [扩充词汇] restructure v.再构成,重建;重组

  [经典例句] It is our urgent task to restructure our economy.

  17. the flap over rap由于说唱引起的焦虑

  [大纲词汇] flap n.垂下物,帽檐,袋盖;n./v.拍打,拍动

  [经典例句] Everything was working smoothly and there is no flap.

  15. rap music说唱音乐

  [扩充词汇] rap n.说唱(一种音乐形式)

  19. on the ground of以…为理由

  [扩充词汇] on the ground of根据,以…为理由

  [经典例句] He refused to give her the job on the ground of ill-health.20.under fire受到攻击

  [扩充词汇] under fire受到攻击(批评或责难)

  [经典例句] The basic policy is under fire.

  21. release发行

  [大纲词汇] release v.释放,解放;发表,发行

  [经典例句] Her new book was released only a few day ago.

  22. outlet发泄的方法

  [大纲词汇] outlet n.出路,出口;发泄方法,排遣

  [经典例句] The child needs an outlet for all the energy.

  23. lie in在于

  [大纲词汇] lie v.躺,平放;位于lie in在于

  [经典例句] The possible solution of the issue lies in his apology.

  24. latitude自由

  [大纲词汇] latitude n.纬度

  [扩充词义] latitude n.(言语、行动等的)自由

  [经典例句] He gave me considerable latitude in how I spend the money.

  25. disputable有争议的

  [大纲词汇] dispute v.争论

  [衍生词汇] disputable a.有争议的,可商榷的

  [经典例句] His claim to the land is highly disputable.

  26. irritating令人恼火的

  [大纲词汇] irritate v.激怒,恼火,使急躁

  [衍生词汇] irritating a.令人恼火的

  [经典例句] She was terribly disturbed by the irritating noise in the next door.

  27. retreat退让

  [大纲词汇] retreat v.撤退,退却

  [经典例句] She retreated to her desk and continued with her work.

  28. in the face of面对

  [经典例句] He won‘t give up his effort in the face of difficulty.

  29. comment on评论

  [大纲词汇] comment n.注释,评论,意见;v.(on)注释,评论

  [经典例句] They refused to comment on the conflicts between the two parties.

  30. back off放弃(主张)

  [扩充词汇] back off(=back down)放弃原来的主张,打退堂鼓

  [经典例句] He backed off his opinion under pressure.

  31. hard-line强硬路线的

  [扩充词汇] hard-line a.(主张采取)强硬路线的,不妥协的hard-liner n.(主张)强硬路线者,不妥协者

  [经典例句] The newly elected president insist on hard-line foreign policy.

  32. to some extent在某种程度上

  [经典例句] The answer is negative to some extent.

  33. assert宣称

  [大纲词汇] assert v.断言,宣称

  [衍生词汇] assertion n.语气肯定的话,断言

  [经典例句] He asserted his idea, clearly and loudly.

  34. cite引用

  [大纲词汇] cite v.引用,引证;举例

  [经典例句] He cited Shakespeare in his thesis.

  35. launch a drive发起一场运动

  [衍生词义] drive n.运动

  a sales drive推销运动

  [经典例句] The municipal government launched a drive against pollution.

  36. label归类

  [大纲词汇] label v.贴标签于……,把……称为;n.标签;标记,符号

  [经典例句] She labeled the boy a thief.

  37. potentially潜在地

  [大纲词汇] potential a.潜在的,可能的;势的,位的

  [衍生词汇] potentially ad.潜在地

  [经典例句] People considered him a Potentially successful businessman.

  38. objectionable会引起反对的

  [大纲词汇] objection v.(to)反对,异议

  [衍生词汇] objectionable a.会引起反对的

  [经典例句] He didn‘t realize that it would be an objectionable movie when he shot it.

  39. strategy战略

  [大纲词汇] strategy n.战略,策略

  [经典例句] The government adopted a strategy of massive deflation.

  40. First Amendment(美国宪法)第一次修正案

  [大纲词汇] amend v.修改,修正

  [衍生词汇] amendment n.修改,修正;修正案

  41. be associated with与……有关系的

  [大纲词汇] associate v.(with)使联系,使联合;交往,结合

  [经典例句] They were closely associated with each other in the war.

  42. come to realize认识到

  [大纲词汇] realize v.认识到,体会到;实现

  [经典例句] The school came to realize the necessity of change their method of teaching.

  43. be liable to易于…

  [大纲词汇] liable a.(for)有责任的,有义务的;(to + infinitive)有……倾向的,易于…的

  [经典例句] He is liable to evade his responsibilities.

  44. compromise妥协

  [大纲词汇] compromise v./n.妥协,折衷

  [经典例句] They forced him to compromise, but he refused firmly.

  45. stick to坚持

  [大纲词汇] stick to坚持;忠于;信守

  [经典例句] Everybody knows that his always sticks to principles.

  46. yield to屈服

  [大纲词汇] yield v.出产,生长;(to)屈服,服从;n.产量,收获

  [经典例句] They believed he would yield to his father‘s pressure soon.

  全文翻译

  没有一家公司乐意听到别人说自己引起了社会的道德败坏。参议员罗伯特?多尔上星期质问时代华纳公司高级人员时说:难道这就是你们要成就的事业吗?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,难道你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子不成?不过,对于成立于1990年的时代华纳公司而言,这样的质问仅仅只是公司自我反思的最新表白,是在不同时期涉及责任、创作自由和公司底线问题的自我反省。

  于1992年接替已故董事长斯蒂夫?罗斯的56岁的现任董事长杰拉德?莱文是争论的焦点人物。财政方面,他承受着抬高股价,减少公司巨额债务的压力。在两笔新的有线电视交易谈妥后,债务将达到173亿美元。他也答应出售部分财产并重组公司,但现在投资者们仍在焦急地等待着。

  人们对说唱音乐的焦虑并没使他的日子变得好过。莱文一向以它是一种富于表现力的演唱方式为理由来捍卫公司的说唱音乐。1992年公司因出品Ice-T乐队狂暴的说唱歌曲《警察杀手》后备受谴责时,莱文说这是街头文化的合法表达方式,它应该有自己的宣泄途径。他在《华尔街日报》一篇专栏文章中写道:任何一个民主社会的检验不在于它能多有效地控制各种情感的表达,而在于是否给予了人们思考和表达的最广泛的自由,尽管有时这种结果会引起争论和愤怒。我们不会在任何威胁面前退却。

  莱文不愿对上周的辩论做出评论,但有迹象表明这位董事长的强硬立场起码在一定程度上有所缓和。在上个月的股东会议上,大家就摇滚乐的歌词进行了讨论。莱文宣称音乐不是社会问题的病因,他甚至还以自己为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,用说唱乐的表达方式与学生进行交流。但他也谈到了创作自由和社会责任之间要保持平衡的问题。他还宣布公司将致力于为一些人们可能会反感的音乐制定发行和标识的标准。

  总的来说,时代华纳公司的15位董事是支持莱文和公司的经营策略的。但内部人士透露其中几位对此事表示担忧。我们中的一些人多年来就知道宪法第一修正案所说的自由并非毫无限制,鲁斯说,我想与公司有关系的一些人可能是最近才意识到这一点。

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考研英语范文阅读模拟试题及答案解析(十)

Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as steering the economy to a soft landing or a touch on the brakes, makes itself sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy. Hence there is an analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rearview mirror and a faulty steering wheel.
  
  Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below the double-digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s.
  
  It is also less than most forecasters had predicted. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that America’s inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and is expected to average only about 3% for the year as a whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is running half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America.
  
  Economists have been particularly surprised by favourable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America’s, have little productive slack. America’s capacity utilisation, for example, hit historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate (5.6% in August) has fallen below most estimates of the natural rate of unemployment-the rate below which inflation has taken off on the past.
  
  Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.
  
  67. From the passage we learn that ________.
  
  (A)there is a definite relationship between inflation and interest rates
  
  (B)economy will always follow certain models
  
  (C)the economic situation is better than expected
  
  (D)economists had foreseen the present economic situation
  
  68. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
  
  (A)Making monetary policies is comparable to driving a car.
  
  (B)An extremely low jobless rate will lead to inflation.
  
  (C)A high unemployment rate will result from inflation.
  
  (D)Interest rates have an immediate effect on the economy.
  
  69. The sentence This is no flash in the pan (line 5, paragraph 3) means that ________.
  
  (A)the low inflation rate will last for some time
  
  (B)the inflation rate will soon rise
  
  (C)the inflation will disappear quickly
  
  (D)there is no inflation at present
  
  70. The passage shows that the author is ________ the present situation.
  
  (A)critical of  (B)puzzled by  (C)disappointed at  (D)amazed at
  
  答案及试题解析
  
  67.(C)意为:经济形势比预想的好。
  
  第三段指出,它(指:平均通货膨胀率)也比多数预测者预测的低。《经济学家》杂志每月调查的经济学家小组称:1995年美国平均通货膨胀率会达3.5%左右,但是,8月份它实际降至2.6%,全年也不过3%左右;在英国和日本,平均通货膨胀率比上年底预测的低0.5个百分点(或:半个百分点)。而且,在过去几年里一直是如此(this is no flash in the pan):在英美两国,平均通货膨胀率一直比预测的要低。
  
  A意为:通货膨胀与利率有直接关系。第一段第二句明确指出:利率与通货膨胀间的关系是不确定的。
  
  B意为:经济(的运行)总是遵循某些模式(或:规律)。第一段指出,使经济软着陆使经济刹车,人们经常使用这样的词来形容货币政策的作用,听起来它似乎是一门严谨的学问。事实远非如此(Nothing could be further from the truth.它根本就不是一门严谨精确的学问)。下文从持续低的通货膨胀率的意外的形势来说明了经济运行难以预测。
  
  D意为:经济学家们预测到了目前的经济形势。相反,正如第四段第一句所指出的,经济学家对目前有利的通货膨胀率始料未及。另请参阅上文分析。
  
  68.(B)意为:极低的失业率会导向通货膨胀。
  
  第四段指出,从传统的(衡量)标准来看,英美两国(特别是美国)的经济生产并没有滑坡(productive slack),例如:美国的设备(能力)利用率(capacity utilisation)今年初达到历史最高水平,其失业率已低于多数正常失业率所允许的数字-过去认为:失业率低于正常失业率时通货膨胀率就开始上升(take off)。
  
  A意为:制定货币政策如同开车。根据第一段第四、五句,在政策的变化对经济起实际作用之前,会有很长而难以确定的(variable)时间差(lag意为:滞后性)。所以,许多人把货币政策实施过程比作驾驶一辆遮住挡风玻璃、后视镜已断裂、方向盘有毛病的汽车。换言之,他们认为,货币政策的制定和实施有很大程度的不可预测性或盲目性。可见,A表达的意思不确切。
  
  C意为:通货膨胀导致高失业率。注意,在这里,inflation一词前没有修饰词,际上,过低的失业率会导致通货膨胀率的上升。参阅上文分析。
  
  D意为:利率对经济有直接而迅速的影响。参阅上文分析。
  
  69.(A)a flash in the pan意为:昙花一现,偶然出现的情况。
  
  参阅第67题题解。
  
  (B)、(C)、(D)均不对。
  
  70.(D)意为:对……感到惊奇,认为……不可思议。
  
  本文主要评述了目前良好的经济形势,它是由持续低的通货膨胀率造成的,是始料未及的。作者强调了目前形势的始料不及的一面(尤其是第二、三、四段的描述)。
  
  A意为:批评。
  
  B意为:因……感到困惑(不解)。
  
  C意为:对……感到失望。
  
  翻译句子
  
  1、This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America.
  
  [参考译文]这不是在很长时间里仅有的一次短暂成功;在过去的几年里,英国和美国的通货膨胀率始终低于预期水平。
  
  [结构剖析]这是一个并列句,前后用分号隔开两个子句,是递进关系。第一句话中,no 可以用 not a 代替。后面一个句子中 inflation 是主语,使用了被动语态的现在完成时态。lower 是表语, than expected 和 in Britain and America, 以及前面的 over the past couple of years 都是介词短语作状语。
  
  [阅读重点]首先应该注意到那个分号,可以把分号前后分别作为一个简单句单独对待。另外在后面一个句子中,应该抓住 inflation has been…… lower…… 这个基本结构(被动语态,现在完成时态)。flash in the pan 是习语,意思是 a sudden success that will not be repeated, 接近汉语中的昙花一现。
  
  2、The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.
  
  [参考译文]很不幸,这最令人震惊的解释有一点缺陷。一些经济学家认为世界经济结构的强有力的变化已经结束了那个以经济增长和通货膨胀的历史关联为基础的旧的经济模式。
  
  [结构剖析]在第一个句子里面,主干是 …… explanation is…… a little defective. 这是一个主语+系动词+表语结构。副词 unfortunately 是插入语,作状语。第二个句子的主干并不复杂:…… economists argue that……,代词 that 后面是宾语从句。这个宾语从句的基本结构为 structural changes…… have upended…… models……,其中 structural changes是主语,have upended 是现在完成时态的谓语,models 是宾语。这个宾语 models 后面是一个 that 引导的限定性定语从句,修饰 models.
  
  [阅读重点]第一个句子相对比较简单。第二个句子看着很长,但是只要明确了句子的主干,就很容易把整个句子看明白。可以先甩掉宾语从句中的那个定语从句(that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation),这样这个句子结构就显得简单多了。然后再接这个定语从句,整句的意思就浮出水面了。另外注意 upend 一词由动词短语end up衍生而来,意为结束,推翻。
  
  补充难句翻译
  
  1、Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as steering the economy to a soft landing of a touch on the brakes,makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth.

  [参考译文]有很多用于描述货币政策的词汇,例如轻踩刹车以操纵经济软着陆,使货币政策听起来像是一门精确的科学。没有什么比这更远离实际情况的了。

  [结构剖析]在第一个句子中,其主干为Much of the language……, makes it sound like……。used to describe monetary policy是用于修饰language的定语,后面的such as steering the economy to a soft landing of a touch on the brakes是对前面的language进行进一步说明。第二个句子是一个简单句。

  [阅读重点]如上所述的句子主干被确定之后,句子就不难理解了。为了简化这个句子以便于理解,可以先把such as引导的部分忽略不看,那样整个句子就比较好掌握了。注意make it sound like a precise science当中it指代前面提到的monetary policy.

  2、Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rearview mirror and a faulty steering wheel.

  [参考译文]因此这样的类比(就如同)把执行货币政策比作驾驶着一辆涂黑了挡风玻璃,打碎了后视镜,并且方向盘无法正常工作的汽车。

  [结构剖析]这句话承接前面陈述的原因。hence后面只是一个名词词组,中心词是the analogy,后面that引导定语从句修饰前面的analogy with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rearview and a faulty steering wheel是介词词组修饰前面的名词car.注意此句没有谓语动词,只是一个名词性的短语。

  [阅读重点]理解这句话的关键在于hence的用法。hence的意思是for this reason,因此,所以,主要用于书面语,是副词,可以连接一个完整的句子,也可以只跟一个名词。例如:Baby found a pot of paint,hence all the marks on the wall.另外liken A to B意思是把A与B相比,把A比作B.

  3、Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conentional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America‘s, have little productive slack.

  [参考译文]经济学家们对英国和美国的有利的通货膨胀数据尤其感到惊讶,因为传统的计量方法显示两国的经济,特别是美国的经济,几乎没有生产萧条的时候。

  [结构剖析]这是一个主从复合句,连词since连接了两句子。主句的主干是Economists have been……surprised by……。原因状语从句的主干是conventional measures suggest that……,代词that引导了宾语从句作为suggest的宾语。在这个宾语从句中,and especially America‘s相当于especially America’s economy,是前面主语both economies的同位语,用于强调美国经济。

  [阅读重点]这里应该首先注意到since这个连词,然后分别理解两个句子,再把它们放在一起,这个句子的意思就迎刃而解了。另外注意suggest不是建议的意思,而应该是显示,指示。

  语言点详解
  
  1. monetary货币的

  [大纲词汇] monetary a.金融的,货币的

  [经典例句] The new monetary policy will help revitalize the economy.

  2. steering sth to引导

  [大纲词汇] steer v.驾驶,掌握

  [经典例句] The receptionist steered her to the meeting room.

  3. soft landing软着陆

  4. a touch on the brakes踩刹车

  [大纲词汇] brake n./v……制动(器),刹车,闸

  5. precise精确的

  [大纲词汇] precise a.精确的,准确的

  [经典例句] He finished the task by following his precise instructions.

  6. be further from the truth离真理更远了

  [大纲词汇] further ad./a.更远(的),更往前(的);进一步(的)further from(far from)的比较级,表示离…更远

  [经典例句]If you follow this direction,you will be further from your destination.

  7. long, variable lags长期,多变的滞后状况

  [大纲词汇]lag n./.落后(于),滞后(于)variable a.易变的;可变的,变量的;n.变量

  8. analogy类比

  [大纲词汇] analogy n比拟,类比analog/analogue n.类似物;模拟

  [经典例句]I see no analogy between your problems and mine.

  9. liken把…比作

  [扩充词汇] liken v.把…比作(to)

  [经典例句] He likens the archeologist to detective searching for ancient clues.

  10. conduct管理方式

  [大纲词汇] conduct n.行为,品行,举动v.引导,带领;处理,管理;指挥(乐队);传导,传(热,电等)

  [经典例句]His conduct of the business was very successful.

  11. windscreen(汽车上的)挡风玻璃

  12. rearview(车辆上的)后视镜

  13. faulty有毛病的

  [大纲词汇] faulty a.有缺点的,有错误的fault n.过失,过错;缺点,毛病

  [经典例句]The accident was owing to the faulty design of the car.

  14. steering wheel(汽车上的)方向盘

  15. boast about夸耀

  [大纲词汇] boast v.(of,about)自夸,夸耀;n.自夸,大话

  [经典例句] He boasted to us about the new car he purchased lately.

  16. of late最近以来

  [扩充词汇]of late最近以来

  [经典例句]He looked very tired of late

  17. inflation通货膨胀

  [大纲词汇] inflation n.通货膨胀

  [经典例句] New policies were made to curb inflation.

  18. double-digit两位数

  19. forecaster预测者

  [大纲词汇] forecast v./n.预测,预报

  [衍生词汇] forecaster n.天气预报员;(经济形式的预测者)

  [经典例句] He works as a business forecaster.

  20. predict预测

  [大纲词汇] predict v.预测,预言,预告

  [经典例句]It did snow in the afternoon as he predicted.

  21.panel专门小组

  [大纲词汇] panel n.面,板;控制板,仪表盘;专门小组

  [经典例句] The panel of experts decided to meet on Monday.

  22. poll民意测验

  [大纲词汇] poll n.民意测验;(pl.)政治选举,大选;v.对一进行民意测验;获得…选票

  [经典例句] The Republican candidate won a bigger margin in the latest poll.

  23. There is no flash in the pan.情况并未发生逆转。

  [扩充词汇] flash来回的转换;pan平底锅

  24. favourable有利的

  [大纲词汇] favourable/ favorable a.赞许的,有利的,顺利的

  [词汇比较] favorite/favourite a.最喜欢的,中意的注意;两词同是favor的衍生词汇,但意思不同,注意区别。

  [经典例句] The situation will develop in the direction favorable to his rivals.

  25. productive slack生产萧条

  [大纲词汇] slack a.懈怠的,懒散的,松弛的,不紧的;萧条的;n.淡季,萧条;[pl.]便裤,运动裤

  [经典例句] There is a certain amount of slack in the car industry at the moment.

  26. utilisation利用

  [大纲词汇] utilization / untilization n.利用utilize/utilise v.利用utility n.有用,效用

  [经典例句」The utilisation of solar energy has partly solved environmental problems in this area.

  27. take off开始

  [扩充词义]take off开始,开始流行

  [经典例句]The design first took off in American colleges.

  25. thrilling令人震惊的

  [大纲词汇] thrill n.令人激动的事;v.使激动,使兴奋;使毛骨谏然

  [衍生词汇]thrilling a.令人震惊的,令人激动的

  [经典例句] The story has a thrilling climax at the end.

  29. defective有缺陷的

  [大纲词汇]defect n.缺点,缺陷

  [衍生词汇] defective a.有缺陷的

  [经典例句] He returned the defective goods to the salesman……

  30. upend颠倒

  [扩充词汇] upend v.颠倒,使倒立,倒放;打倒,推翻

  [经典例句]He upended the wine bottle over his glass,but only a drop or two ran out.

  31. foresee预见

  [大纲词汇] foresee v.预见,预知

  [经典例句] The captain foresaw the danger ahead.

  32. bo comparable to可比较的

  [大纲词汇] comparable a.(with,to)可比较的,比得上的

  [经典例句] The dinner was comparable to the best French cooking.

  33. be puzzled by迷惑

  [大纲词汇] puzzle v.(使)迷惑,(使)为难;n.难题,谜,迷惑

  [经典例句] We are all puzzled by his abnormal behavior.

  34. be amazed at对…感到惊讶

  [大纲词汇] amaze v.使惊愕,使惊奇,是惊叹

  [经典例句] I was amazed at the news.

  全文翻译

  很多用来描述货币政策的词,如引导经济软着陆,触动经济刹车,听起来像是一门精确的科学。事实远非如此。利率和通货膨胀之间的关系难以确定。在政策改变对经济产生影响前会有一段较长时间且变化不定的后滞期。因此,才会有人将货币政策的指导比做是驾驶一辆带有黑色挡风玻璃、后视镜破碎及方向盘失灵的汽车。

  尽管有这么多不利因素,中央银行家们似乎对近来的形势有了不少值得夸耀的东西。西方七大工业国去年的平均通货膨胀率降至仅2.3%,接近30年来的最低水平。今年7月略微升高到2.5%。这远远低于许多国家在70年代和80年代早期经历的两位数的膨胀率。

  这也低于许多预测者预测的数字。1994年底,每月接受《经济学家》意见调查的一组经济学家指出,美国在1995年的平均通货膨胀率将达到3.5%。实际上,8月份就降到了2.6%。而且有望达到全年平均仅为3%。去年年底,英国和日本的通货膨胀率实际上比预测的要低半个百分点。这不是昙花一现。在过去几年里,英国和美国的通货膨胀率始终低于预测水平。

  经济学家对英美两国有利的通胀率感到特别诧异,因为传统的计量方法表明两国经济,特别是美国经济几乎没有生产萧条的时候。比如,美国的生产力利用率在今年前段时间达到了历史最高水平,失业率(8月份为5.6%)已降到低于对自然失业率的大多数估测-过去,当比率低于自然失业率时,通货膨胀率早已迅速上升。

  为何通货膨胀如此的和缓?可惜的是,这最令人震惊的解释有一点缺陷。一些经济学家认为,世界经济结构强有力的变化已经推翻了那个以经济增长和通货膨胀的历史上相互关联为基础的旧的经济模式。

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